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走进牛津大学英语听力03:金雀花时代的牛津大学(音频+文本)

2016-04-26    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

【双语文本】

The House of Plantagenet, also called the House of Angevin in France, is a royal house of the branch of the Angevins. They have ever ruled Duchy of Normandy between 1144 and 1204,as well as 1415 and 1450, Kingdom of England between 1154 and 1458,and Duchy of Aquitaine between 1153 and 1453. During this period, the new-born Oxford University grew gradually into a well known academic centre. Following the foundation of colleges, worldwide scholars went to Oxford one after another. In total, 12 colleges were built up during this period, including two considered as colleges later.

金雀花王朝,在法国又名安茹王朝,是一个源于法国安茹的王族。他们曾统治过诺曼底公国(在1144-1204及1415-1450年间)、英格兰公国(1154-1458)和阿基坦公国(1153-1453)。刚刚崭露头角的牛津大学就是在这样的时代中一步步成长的,它最终成为了一个著名的学术中心。随着学院一个接一个地成立,世界各地的学者也纷至沓来。牛津大学总共有12个学院是在这个期间建成的,包括两个后来才被承认的学院。
 
In the 13th century, many masters created halls of residence to protect scholars from local hostility. Afterwards, university colleges were built up to instead of the halls of residence. Colleges were usually founded by rich churchman who had no offspring to leave their wealth. Thanks to their endowment, colleges flourished. The first three colleges to be established were University College in 1249,Balliol College in 1263,and Merton College in 1264. University College, on the south side of the High Street, was built by William, who probably came from Sedgefleld, County Durham and was educated at Wearmouth monastery in Paris. When he died in 1249,he left a large amount of money in his will to be invested in supporting scholars in Oxford, which resulted in the foundation of University College. Balliol College was founded by John I de Balliol, under the guidance of the Bishop of Durham. His support for a house of scholars studying at Oxford began in around 1263. After his death in 1268,his widow continued to supervise, so as to ensure the establishment of the college. The founder of Merton College was Bishop of Rochester Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and later to Edward I. In 1264 Walter drew up statutes for a “house of the scholars of Merton”. Ten years later, he transferred those scholars to Oxford, who he supported at Malden, Surrey. Then he established Merton College. For the last three years of his life Walter divided his time between his duties in Rochester and the supervision of Merton College. Unfortunately, he died from an accident in 1277.
在13世纪,许多大师建起了宿舍,防止学者们被当地人伤害。后来,大学学院建立并取代了宿舍。学院通常是由富有的牧师们出资建立的,他们没有后代来继承财产。多亏了他们的捐赠,学院如雨后春等般涌现。最早成立的三个学院是1249年建成的大学学院,1263年建成的贝利奥尔学院,以及1264年成立的默顿学院。位于高街南边的大学学院是由威廉建立的,他可能来自达拉漠郡的塞奇菲尔德,并在巴黎的威尔茅斯修道院接受过教育。在1249年去世后,威廉留下了一大笔遗产,他留下遗愿要把这些钱投给牛津大学用来资助学者,这最终成就了大学学院。贝利奥尔学院是约翰•贝利奥尔在达拉谟主教的指引下建造的。贝利奥尔就开始资助牛津大学建校舍,在1268年贝利奥尔辞世后,他的遗孀继续监督校舍建造以确保学院落成。默顿学院的建造者是罗彻斯特主教沃尔特•默顿,他是亨利二世以及后来的爱德华一世执政时的大臣。1264年,沃尔特给“默顿的学者们”起草了一个章程。10年后,沃尔他在萨里郡的莫尔登资助过的学生们转移到了牛津。接着,他建立了默顿学院。在他生命的最后3年里,沃尔特把所有的时间用在他在罗彻斯特的工作和默顿学院的管理上。不幸的是,他因一场意外于1277年辞世。
 
Between the 14th and 15th century, another 7 colleges also came into existence in succession, comprising Exeter College in 1314, Oriel College in 1326,Queen’s College in 1341,New College in 1379,Lincoln College in 1427,All Souls College in 1438,and Magdalen College in 1458. What’s more,there were also two colleges built during this time, St Edmunds Hall in 1226 and Hertford College in 1282. However, it was not until later that they were admitted as colleges, due to different standards of a college. They were making the transition to a college respectively in 1957 and 1740.
14-15世纪,另外7个学院也陆续建成,包括1314年成立的艾克赛特学院、1326年成立的奥里尔学院、1341年建成的女王学院、1379年建成的新学院、1427年建成的林肯学院、分别成立于1438年及1458年的众灵学院和莫德林学院。此外,在此期间建立的学院还有两个:1226年的圣•艾德蒙学堂和1282年的赫特•福德学院。但是,由于对学院的评估标准不一,直到后来它们才被承认是学院。它们分别于1957年和1740年改称为学院。


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