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走进牛津大学英语听力07:牛津大学的机构(音频+文本)

2016-05-03    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

【双语文本】As a collegiate university, the University of Oxford is considered as a federation which comprises more than forty self-governing colleges and halls, along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor. The academic departments located within this structure are not affiliated with any particular college. They mainly provide facilities for Oxford’s teaching and research. Nowadays, there are 16 academic departments, including the Department of Anthropology and Geography, the Department of Biological Science, the Department of Theology, and so on. However, everyone of the departments, facualty and students, must be a member of a college or hall of the Oxford University. Colleges are responsible for admitting undergraduates and organizing their tuition, while this responsibly falls on the departments for graduates.

作为一所联合大学,牛津大学可以说是一个联盟,它拥有40多个自治学院和学堂,还包括一个由副校长管理的中央行政机构。学部是一个跨学院的机构, 不附属于任何一个学院。它们主要负责为牛津大学的教学和研究工作创造条件。 现在,牛津大学共有16个学部,包括人类学和地理学学部、生物科学学部、以及神学学部等等。不过,每个学部的教师和学生必须是牛津大学某一学院或学堂的一员。学院负责本科生的人学和教学工作,但接待研究生的任务却由学部来承担。
 
There are 38 colleges at Oxford University and 6 permanent private halls, each with its own internal structure and activities. Each college has its own Governing Body, composed of the Head of House and a number of Fellows, most of whom also hold posts in the University. The colleges join together to discuss policy, which is usually called the Conference of Colleges. The whole colleges also gather to deal with the central administration. Permanent Private Halls, founded by various Christian denominations, still retain their religious character. Teaching members of the colleges, fellows and tutors, are collectively known as dons. All colleges invest in large sums of money in facility for library extension, residential and dining condition improvement, and welfare support. In addition, the colleges also provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members.
牛津大学总共有38个学院和6个永久性私人学堂,它们都有自己的内部结构和活动。每个学院都有自己的管理委员会,由院长和几个研究员组成, 这些研究员中的大多数人在学校都有职位。各个学院聚集在一起讨论政策方针等问题,这通常被称作 学院会议。所有的学院还会聚到一起与学校的中央行政机构商讨事务。由各种基督教派建立的永久性私人学堂仍然保持着它们的宗教特质。学院教职人员,无论是普通讲师还是导师,都被称为“阁下”。 所有的学院都会在图书馆扩建、住宿和饮食条件的改善、以及福利支持等方面投资大量的钱。此外,学院还为它的成员们提供社交、文化和娱乐活动。
 
What we have just mentioned above is collegiate system, which is used by a great many British universities, such as the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The greatest advantage of the collegiate system is that it gives students and academics the benefits of belonging to both a large, internationally renowned institution and to a smaller, interdisciplinary, academic college community. Through subjects and year groups, it enables students and leading academics from different cultures and countries to share ideas.
我们上面提到的就是学院制,英国的很多大学都采用学院制,例如牛津大学 和剑桥大学。学院制最大的优点在于它使得学生和学者不仅属于一个大的国际知名机构,而且属于一个小的跨领域的学术性的大学社区。通过学科使来自不同文化与国家的学生和前沿学者们能够聚集在一起进行思想交流。


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