【双语文本】In the University of Oxford, teaching is conducted primarily through the tutorial system. It is one of the most unique and renowned methods of teaching across the world. The weekly tutorial consists of a one-hour meeting between the tutor and small numbers of students (usually two to four). During this time, an essay prepared specifically for that tutorial is read by students and commented upon by the tutor. At the end of the tutorial, the tutor will assign the topic of study for the forthcoming week and suggest readings. Tutorials can be considered the backbone of undergraduate teaching at Oxford. Meanwhile, they are also complemented by departmental lectures which are conducted on a university wide basis, lab work, and seminars often with groups of perhaps 10 students.
在牛津大学，教学主要是通过导师制来实施的。导师制是世界上最独特、最著名的教学方法之一。每周一次的辅导课其实就是导师和几个学生（通常是2 ~ 4 个）一小时的会面。期间，学生要宣读专门为辅导课撰写的论文，并由导师进行评论。辅导课结束的时候，导师会布置下周的研究课题，并推荐读物。辅导课被认为是牛津大学本科生教学的支柱。同时，牛津的教学还有全校各个学部的课程、 实验项目和由大约10个学生组成的研讨会作为补充。
Tutorials have gained their reputation because of the close relationship they maintain between the tutor and the student. The tutorial system provides undergraduates with direct and in most cases weekly contact with tutors in their academic fields. In the mean time, tutorials are also beneficial for developing students’ skills of critical analysis. Before the weekly tutorial, students are required to prepare an essay or other works, which they read or present to the tutor. During each tutorial, students are expected to communicate, debate, analyze and critique the ideas of others as well as their own in conversations with the professor and fellow-students. The tutorial system has great value that it creates learning and assessment opportunities which are highly authentic and difficult to fake, as the student’s work is discussed on the spot.
The greatest advantage of the tutorial system is the individual attention that students receive. The contrast between tutorials and large lectures common in the American universities is obvious. In the typical American university, students are taught by the same specialists, in the same manner, and held to the same standards. However, during tutorials, students have the opportunity to explore their own ideas directly with experts in particular subjects. Sometimes, the student may leave a tutorial with only a reading list and the title of the next essay. As a result, students must engage in extensive independent reading and research, using the resources available, under the guidance of the tutor.