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走进牛津大学英语听力11:一个了不起的学院--默顿学院(音频+文本)

2016-05-06    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

【双语文本】Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor and Bishop of Rochester. It is claimed that Merton is the oldest college in the University of Oxford, with the substance that Merton was the first college to be provided with “statutes”, Which ruled that the college governed its own funding. In 1274,Merton made his final revisions to the college statutes, which is still used today. Simultaneously,he commenced a rapid program of building. At the end of the 13th century, the hall, the chapel, and the rest of the front quad were complete. During the past 700 years, the academic activities of the College were not interrupted, as well as the buildings were expanded continuously.

默顿学院是英国牛津大学众多学院中的一个。它于1264年由时任英格兰大法官和罗彻斯特主教的瓦尔特•德默顿创立。默顿学院宣称自己是牛津大学最古 老的学院,因为它最早颁布并实施了自治条例。该条例规定资金由学院自行支配。 1274年,默顿对学院的条例做了最后修改,并一直沿用至今。与此同时,他开始大兴修建学院建筑。到13世纪末,餐厅、教堂以及学院前庭的其他部分都顺利完工。 700多年来,这里的学术活动一直延续不断,学院的建筑也在不断扩展。
 
Nowadays, Merton College has become the most academically successful and economically wealthy college in the University of Oxford. In recent years, the College has achieved high ranking in the Norrington Table, and in the last eight years, Merton has been top of the Norrington table six times.
时至今日,默顿学院已经成为牛津大学学术实力最强、经济条件最富裕的学院之一。近年来,默顿学院在诺林顿表上的排名一直很靠前。在过去的8年里, 默顿学院就有6次荣居诺林顿表首位。
 
As I have mentioned above, there exist a lot of architecturally distinctive buildings in Merton College, including the Hall, the Front Quad, the Mob Quad, the Fellow’s Quad, and so on. The hall is the oldest surviving college building, though only the door preserves its magnificent medieval ironwork. The hall is still used daily for meals, and not open to visitors. Mob Quad, built in the 14th century, is the oldest quadrangle of any Oxford or Cambridge college. The old library, located upstairs of Mob Quad, is one of the oldest medieval libraries in Britain, which is still in use today. The grandest quadrangle in Merton is the Fellows,Quadrangle, which was undertaken by Sir Henry Savile at the beginning of the 17th century. There are also a number of buildings founded in Victorian-era or later, such as St. Alban Quad and the Grove building.
如前所述,默顿学院拥有大量造型独特的建筑。包括餐厅、学院前庭、莫伯方庭(民众方庭)和院士方庭等。餐厅虽然只有大门还保留着中世纪的铁门风格,但它却是尚存最早的学院建筑。 这间餐厅现在仍然用于日常供餐,不对游人开放。建于14世纪的莫伯方庭是牛津和剑桥所有学院里最古老的方庭。 位于莫伯方庭楼上的图书馆是英国迄今为止仍在使用的最古老的中世纪图书馆之一。默顿学院最大的庭院是院士方庭。 它是在17世纪初,由亨利萨维尔男爵出资兴建的。学院还有一些维多利亚时期、 甚至更晚兴建的建筑,如圣•阿尔班方庭和格罗夫大楼等。


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