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走进牛津大学英语听力16:历史悠久的牛津出版社(音频+文本)

2016-05-12    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

【双语文本】Oxford University Press is regarded as the largest press in the world. By the number of publications, it publishes some 6,000 new books around the world each year, earning nearly €5 million. As to the scale of the press, it has branches in more than 50 counties, employing a global workforce that numbers approximately 4,000. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press, Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee the Press since the 17th century. As an organization of Oxford, the Press is committed to major financial support of Oxford.

牛津大学出版社堪称是世界上规模最大的出版社。就其出版物的数量而言, 它每年出版大约6000种新书,年收人近500万欧元。就出版社的规模来看,它在50多个国家设有分社,在全球拥有大约4000名员工。牛津大学出版社是牛津大学的一个机构,由牛津大学各学院推选的15名学者管理,这些学者由牛津大学第一副校长,即出版社的社长任命。自17世纪以来,牛津大学就使用类似这样的体制管理出版社。作为牛津大学的一个机构,出版社承担起了为学校提供大部分经费的任务。
 
The first book printed in Oxford was in 1478 by Theoderic Rood, who was from Cologne and was the first printer to be associated with Oxford University. The book named Expositio in symbolum apostolorum was written by Rufinus and it related to religion. The press history of Oxford University began a misprint: Mr. Rood forgot a Roman numeral X,which was mis-dated in Roman numerals as “1468”. Rood’s printing house lasted around 10 years in Oxford, and it had sporadic  connection with the university, with few publications. It was not until 1585, when the Earl of Leicester, Robert Dudley reestablished the Oxford University Press, the situation didn’t take a turn for the better. Some royal assents were obtained, and a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at “the Universities of Oxford” in 1586. The Oxford University Press opened its first branch in New York in 1896,then in India,Africa, and Australia successively. Eventually, it moved into international markets.
牛津大学印刷的第一本书于1478年问世,它是由科隆人西奥德里克•鲁德印刷的,他是牛津出版社的第一个印刷者。这是鲁菲诺写的一本关于宗教的书,书名为《使徒信经解说》。牛津大学的出版史始于一个印刷错误: 鲁德印刷的书中的罗马数字漏印了一个X,这样出版年代就错印成了 1468年。鲁德的印刷厂在牛津 只维持了 10年左右,它和大学之间只存在着松散 的联系,出版物非常少。直到1585年,莱斯特的伯爵罗伯特•达德利重创办了牛津大学出版社后,情况才有所好转。它获得了英王的一些恩准,并且在1586年取得了在牛津大学建立出版社的许可。1896年,牛津大学出版社在纽约开设了第一个办事处,随后,又陆续在印度、非洲和澳大利亚成立分社,最终成功地打入了国际市场。
 
Since its founding, the Press published humanistic books in major and later extended to various fields such as science and technology, medicine, as well as economic management. The Oxford University Press’s diverse publishing project has raised its fame internationally and finally makes it well-known all around the world. Its publications include scholarly works on varied disciplines, musical works, school text books, children's books, journals, the World’s Classical series, dictionaries, reference books, and so on. It is necessary to mention two publications, Dictionary of National Biography owning 63 volumes, as well as Oxford English Dictionary being a linguistic Wonder of the World.
自创办以来,该出版社开始以出版人文科学书籍为主,后来又扩展到科技、 医药和经济管理等领域。牛津大学出版社多元化的出版计划提高了它在国际上的知名度,最终使它举世闻名。牛津大学出版社的出版物包括各学科的学术著作、 音乐作品、教材、少儿图书、学术期刊、世界经典丛书、辞典和参考书等。出版社有两大出版成果是不得不提的,那就是有63册的《民族传记词典》和语言学世界奇迹《牛津英语词典》。


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