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走进牛津大学英语听力23:“牛桥"的涵义(音频+文本)

2016-06-01    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

 Oxbridge is a composite of the two most renowned universities in Britain, the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, which was founded by scholars fleeing Oxford in 1209. There are a great many similarities between them, so they are jointly referred to as Oxbridge. The history of the two universities can be traced back to the 11th and 13th centuries respectively, whereas the term “Oxbridge” originated from the British writer William Thackeray’s novel Tendennis, published in 1849. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that “Oxbridge” was accepted gradually.

牛桥,是英国最著名的两所大学牛津大学和剑桥大学的合称。剑桥大学是由 1209年从牛津大学逃离的学者们建立的。两所大学之间有着很多的共同点,因此 常常被合称为牛桥。两校的历史分别可以追溯到11世纪和13世纪,但是,“牛 桥"一词的说法则起源于英国作家威廉?萨克雷于1849年完成的小说《潘登尼斯》。 直到20世纪中叶,“牛桥”一词才逐渐被人们所接受。
 
The most common feature between Oxford and Cambridge is their collegiate struc-ture~~both of them are composed of more than 30 autonomous colleges, which provide the environments in which students live and sleep. Applicants must choose a specific college when applying to Oxford or Cambridge, or allow the university to select one for them, because all undergraduate and graduate students must be a member of one of the university colleges. However, students studying the same subject are given lectures together, irrespective of which college they attend. Colleges regularly compete with each other in a variety of fields, including sports, speech and debate, and so on.
牛津大学和剑桥大学最大的共同点在于它们的学院结构——它们都是由30多所自治的学院组成的,这里是学生们日常生活和住宿的地方。学生们入学时必须 选择一个特定的学院,或是自己选,或是由学校来选,因为本科生和研究生都必 须从属于学校的某一个学院。但是,上课则是按照学系分班,共同授课,不论他 们属于哪个学院。学院之间经常有各种比赛,包括体育比赛和辩论赛等。
 
Another similarity between Oxford and Cambridge is their special method of teaching. The principal teaching method at Oxbridge colleges is the “supervision” or “tutorial”,used at Cambridge and Oxford respectively, though with the same meaning. Under the “supervision” or “tutorial”,small groups of students meet with a member of the university’s teaching staff weekly or more frequently. Students are normally required to complete an essay or assignment in advance of the session, which they will discuss with the supervisor or tutor for an hour.
牛津大学和剑桥大学的另一个相似之 处在于它们特别的教学方法。“牛桥”的 学院采用的教学方法主要是导师制,虽然 意思相同,但在剑桥大学和牛津大学分别 被称作“监督”和“个别指导”。依照导师制,学生们以小组为单位每周和学校的教员见 面一次,或者更多。学生们在会面之前通 常要完成一篇读书笔记或课外作业,他们 会和导师用一个小时左右的时间讨论这些作业。
 
Actually, Oxford and Cambridge share a common history: both were founded more than 800 years ago; both were places to study scholasticism; both had educated a large number of Britain’s most prominent scientists, writers and politicians, as well as noted figures in many other fields. They have also established similar institutions and facilities, such as printing houses like Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press, botanical gardens like University of Oxford Botanic Garden and Cambridge University Botanic Garden, museums like the Ashmolean and the Fitzwiiliam, legal deposit libraries like the Bodleian and the Cambridge University Library, and societies like the Oxford Union and the Cambridge Union.
事实上,两校的历史也十分相似:它们都起源于800多年前;都曾经是经院哲 学的堡垒;都为英国培养了大量杰出的科学家、作家、政治家、以及社会各界的 知名人士。它们还建立了类似的机构和设施,例如:印刷厂——牛津大学出版社 和剑桥大学出版社、植物园——牛津大学植物园和剑桥大学植物园、博物馆—— 牛津大学博物馆和剑桥大学费兹威廉博物馆、法定图书馆——牛津大学图书馆和 剑桥大学图书馆、以及社团——牛津联盟和剑桥联盟。


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