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走进牛津大学英语听力24:“牛桥"之争(音频+文本)

2016-06-02    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

【双语文本】Both of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge were founded more than 800 years ago. Competitions between them also have a long history, dating back to around 1209, when Cambridge was just established. Though they were born from the same root, there have been many direct and indirect competitions between the two universities all the time.

牛津大学和剑桥大学都建立于800多年前。它们之间的竞争也有很悠久的历 史了,可以追溯到1209年剑桥刚刚成立的时候。虽然它们本是同根生,这两所 大学之间一直都存在着直接或间接的竞争。
 
Many annual competitions are held between Oxford and Cambridge, such as the Boat Race. The Boat Race is a rowing race between the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club over a four-mile stretch of the River Thames. It first took place in 1829, and it has been held annually since 1856, with the exception of the two world wars. The first Race was won by Oxford, but now Cambridge lead the overall series to Oxford, with one dead heat in 1877. The most recent race was on the 3rd April, 2010 with Cambridge winning. The other major Oxbridge competitions are the Rugby Union Varsity Match and the Rugby League Varsity Match. The Rugby Union Varsity Match is a ruby union game played annually in December at Twickenham Stadium. Cambridge currently has 60 wins, including the most recent win in December 2009, while Oxford has 53, with 14 ending in draws. The Rugby League Varsity Match is a ruby league game played annually in March. Until 2010,it has been contested for only 30 years, and Cambridge leads the series 16 to 13,with one draw in 1994.
牛津大学和剑桥大学之间的比赛是每年都要举办的,如划船比赛。划船比赛 是一种在泰晤士河上举办的赛艇对抗赛,由牛津大学划船俱乐部和剑桥大学划船俱乐部参赛,赛程为4英里。这项赛事起源于1829年,除了两次世界大战期间 没有举行外,从1856年开始每年都举办。牛津大学赢得了第一届划船比赛的胜利, 但是目前剑桥大学在总成绩上略胜一筹,唯一一次平手是在1877年。最近的一 次比赛在2010年4月3日举行的,剑桥大获全胜。牛桥其他的赛事主要是橄榄 球联合会对抗赛和橄榄球联盟对抗赛。橄榄球联合会对抗赛是一种每年12月在 维克汉姆体育场举行的橄榄球联合会比赛。目前,剑桥大学赢了 60次,包括 2009年12月最近的这次,而牛津大学只贏了 53次,有14次平局。橄榄球联盟 对抗赛是一种每年3月举行的橄榄球联盟比赛。直到2010年,这项赛事只持续 了 30年,剑桥大学胜了 16次,而牛津大学胜了 13次,两队曾在1994年打了个 平手。
 
Indirect competition can be measured by the success of the alumni of each university. Oxford has a greater political heritage. Since Winston Churchill’s second term, all the British Prime Ministers graduated from Oxford, with only three exceptions—James Callaghan and John Major, neither of whom received university educations, and Gordon Brown, who graduated from the University of Edinburgh. Oxford is also famous for its dictionary, which is generally regarded as the definitive record of the English Language. However, Cambridge’s reputation is more impressive in science and technology. Cambridge alumni have been involved with developing some of the most important science ideas of the last few hundred years, for example, the theory of gravity,the theory of evolution, the structure of DNA, and so on. It also has been associated with the majority of Britain’s most renowned scientists, including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Stephen Hawking,and James Clerk Maxwell.
间接竞争可以用每个大学校友的成功 指数来衡量。牛津大学在政治方面更有优 势。从温斯顿·丘吉尔的第二个任期开始,所有的英国首相都是牛津大学毕业的,只 有三个例外——詹姆斯·卡拉汉和约翰·梅 杰,他们都未曾受过高等教育,以及戈 登·布朗,他毕业于爱丁堡大学。牛津大 学还以它的词典著称,这些词典通常被认 为是英语语言的最高纪录。但是,剑桥大学在科学与技术领域拥有更大的优势。 剑桥大学的校友们参与提出了一些在过去的几百年里最重要的科学理念,如:万 有引力定律、进化论、DNA的构造等等。剑挢大学还与英国很大一部分最著名的 科学家息息相关,包括艾萨克·牛顿、査尔斯·达尔文、史蒂芬·霍金和詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦等。 


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