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原来如此英语视频系列:维基百科

2015-09-09    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

维基百科

用丰富的图文,搞笑漫画,风趣幽默的讲解,为你带来各方面的文化知识。让你学习英语的同时,扩大视野,提高你的知识量。本系列为中英双字幕。

【本集介绍】

在线免费,全民参与且动态更新的新型百科全书--维基百科。

【中英文本】

You've probably seen encyclopedias. Whether you're settling an argument or researching a school project, these books can hold the answers. These days though, the world moves so fast, it's hard for books that were written months or years ago to keep up. Thankfully we have a new kind of encyclopedia that's online, free, built by thousands of people and changes every day. This is Wikipedia Explained by Common Craft.
知道百科全书吧?百科全书为我们解决争端,研究项目提供了最佳答案。然而我们所处的时代日新月异,印刷的百科全书老得掉渣了。幸好一种在线免费,全民参与且动态更新的新型百科全书腾空出世。本期介绍维基百科。

The idea that thousands of volunteers could create an online encyclopedia doesn't sound possible, but thanks to new technology and specific pilicies, Wikipedia has become one the top 5 sites on the Web.
虽然数以万计的志愿者在线编写百科书听起来不大靠谱,但是得益于新技术和特殊策略,维基百科已经跻身全球五大网站。

The site is run by a not-for-profit foundation with a goal to provide everyone on the planet access to the sum of all human knowledge. To see how it works, let's get started with the "wiki" in Wikipedia.
创建它的是一个非盈利性机构,我们由“维基”抛砖来谈网站如何运转。

A wiki is a kind of website that allows users to make changes to any page. They simply click edit, make the change and then save the page to share it with the world. This basic concept allows volunteers to contribute information on any subject in Wikipedia. And because Wikipedia is a website-there is no limit to the number of topics it can cover. Being a wiki means that Wikipedia is always changing. When someone notable passes away, Wikipedia is updated. When news breaks, Wikipedia grows. It all works because tens of thousands of volunteers contribute, and also enforce rules to ensure Wikipedia remains a reliable source for factual information.
维基是一种支持所有用户修改网页的技术。参与者可以轻松编辑、修改、保存、共享。因此志愿者可以共享任何领域的知识。维基百科涵盖的主题数目庞大、自由开放的特点保证内容不断更新。名人去世时,维基百科做出相应修改。有新闻快讯时,维基百科亦会及时更新。网站成功离不开无数志愿者辛勤奉献,他们也制定了一系列措施保证网站信息真实可靠。

These users, like any member, can see changes as they happen on each article. For example, if someone posts an advertisement on Wikipedia, which is forbidden-volunteers can easily reverse the change to maintain the article's integrity. This means every change to Wikipedia is reviewed and must abide by two big rules:
不论用户或成员都可以看到词条的改动。 假如有人在网站上贴了广告,志愿者可轻易删除,维持词条的完整性。这就意味着所有改动都要被审核,而且要遵循两条原则:

The first is verifiability, which is necessary to ensure high quality. For this reason, Wikipedia articles must rely on information from published sources like books or newspapers-resources known for fact-checking. Requiring contributors to cite these resources in articles and quotations ensures Wikipedia articles are factual and high quality. If it's not verified, it can't be in Wikipedia. For example, you can write that US unployment rate in 1935 was 20.1%, but you must also cite its source for it to remain in Wikipedia. In this case, numerous history books could be verifiable resources.
第一是可验证性,确保质量。网站内容必须与公共出版物,比如书或者报纸一致。要求词条贡献者在词条中提供出处保证了真实性和质量。如果没有被证实,就不能采用。比如提到美国1935年失业率是20.1%,就必须提供出处。于是数以万计的历史书摇身变为鉴定来源。

The second rule requires a neutral point of view. All Wikipedia material must be presented fairly and without bias, just like any other encyclopedia. This means Wikipedia is not a place for contributors to share their own opinions. Let's say you're an advocate for vaccinations and you write "every parent should get their children vaccinated." Unfortunately, this is biased and certain to cause disagreement. However, published opinons of experts can be included. For example, writing that: "vaccinating all U.S. children saves an estimated 33,000 lives," and citing a reputable source is a statement of fact that can be verified.
第二原则是保持中立。所有维基条目必须像百科全书一样保持中立态度。不允许贡献者分享个人意见。假设你提倡疫苗接种,不能写“每位家长都应该给孩子接种疫苗”。这段话带有主观色彩,必定会引起争论。但是专家的公开意见可以被编写在内。比如“接种疫苗拯救了大约3万3000小孩的生命”,并提供可信来源。

And if there is an opposing view, it should also be included to balance the article and keep it neutral. The article should present all the major opinions without endorsing one over the other. It's these two rules and the volunteers who uphold them that make Wikipedia a reliable resource that grows each day. And you can be involved. It's all part of the process of building a free encyclopedia-the largest encyclopedia in human history.
同时网站也必须呈现对立观点,以保持中立客观.条目需要平等地呈现所有的主要观点。这两条原则以及维护它们的撰写者们,使得维基百科成长为不断庞大、备受信赖的网站。你也能成为其中一员。史上最大免费百科全书就是这样诞生的。

I'm Lee LeFever and this has been Wikipedia Explained by Common Craft.
这就是维基百科,我是《原来如此》节目的李·勒菲弗。



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