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双语:10个要诀助你提高商业写作水平

2015-02-09    来源:fortune    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

双语:10个要诀助你提高商业写作水平

写作是将想法落实到纸面的过程。它需要付出时间和脑力,才能把抽象的想法带入有形的世界。

This post is in partnership with Entrepreneur. The article below was originally published at Entrepreneur.com.
本文为与《创业者》杂志的合作内容。下文最初发表于Entrepreneur.com网站。

Writing is valuable. It doesn’t just transfer insights, it creates them. And since “good words are worth much and cost little,” choosing the right words is worth the price you pay in time (and sanity).
会写作能给你增值。它并非简单地将你的见解从内心转移到纸面,同时也是新想法产生的过程。所谓“好话不花钱,一句值千金”,你值得在遣词造句上费心推敲。

At Help Scout we look at the quality of writing through the same demanding lens we use to evaluate the quality of code.
在我的公司Help Scout,我们会用评估编码质量的严苛标准,来评价商业写作的质量。

I certainly don’t have this writing thing figured out—not even close—but thanks to the gracious feedback from readers, here are a few common signs that your writing is heading in the right direction:
虽然我本人离写作高手还有一定距离,但基于无数热心读者的反馈所赐,在此我们总结出了一些要诀,可以指引你的写作走向正确的方向:

1. Brevity. Soul. Wit.
1. 简洁、言之有物、措辞巧妙。

Few things drag down writing more than spreading good ideas over too many words.
用长篇大论展现好的想法,最容易毁掉一篇文章。

2. Writing is not flaunting your vocabulary.
2. 写作不是炫耀你的词汇量。

“When you write you should pretend that you, the writer, see something in the world that’s interesting, that you are directing the attention of your reader to that thing in the world, and that you are doing so by means of conversation,” says Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker. Writing is not meant to prove ownership of a thesaurus—it is the selective transcribing of thoughts.
哈佛大学心理学家史蒂芬•平克表示:“你在写作时应该设想自己看到了一些有趣的事情,你要通过对话的方式,引导读者关注这些事情。”写作不是证明你拥有丰富的词汇,而是选择性地把你的思想记录下来。

3. On having your cake and eating it, too.
3.既要让文章好看,也要让读者有所得

The best writing is that which pleases at a glance but further rewards careful study. “A thoughtful list post” may seem like an oxymoron , but like a movie you can re-watch a dozen times, good writing hooks easily yet hides gifts for a discerning mind.
最好的文章既能让人一见钟情,更能让读者在细心研读之后有所收获。就像一部百看不厌的电影一样,好的写作可以轻松抓住有辨识力的读者,并且能不断给他们带来意外的收获。

4. Don’t bury the lede.
4. 不要浪费导语的作用。

Before pen to page or fingers to keyboard, you must begin with knowing what you are trying to say. Every piece of writing should have the thesis, the value proposition, be entirely clear from the outset. The journey to the end of your essay should be rewarding for reasons other than figuring out what point you’re trying to make.
下笔之前,你首先要清楚自己想要说什么。每一篇文章都应该有一个主题,有一个从一开始就明确阐述的价值主张。 读完你的文章,应该是对你缜密推理的回报,而不是想搞清楚你究竟想表达什么观点。

5. To write more ‘Damn Good Sentences,’ read them.
5. 要想写出更多“佳句”,多多阅读。

In the book How To Write a Sentence, New York Times columnist Stanley Fish laments that “many educators approach teaching the craft of writing a memorable sentence the wrong way — by relying on rules rather than examples.” Garbage in, garbage out; you’ll produce better sentences if you dedicate time to reading them.
在《如何写出好句子》一书中,《纽约时报》专栏作家斯坦利•菲什不无惋惜地表示,“在教人们如何写出令人难忘的句子时,许多教育工作者都使用了错误的方式——依靠规则而不是例子。”所谓进来的是垃圾,出去的也是垃圾;只要你能花时间读一些佳句,你肯定也能写出更好的句子来。

6. “In other words,” you should have used other words.
6. “换言之,”你应该用其他的词。

Insight is memorable when it can be embraced directly—don’t pad it with “essentially,” “basically,” or “in other words.” Use the right words the first time.
只有能被人直接领悟的见解,才会令人记忆深刻——不要通篇都是“本质上”、“基本上”或“换言之”这样的词。在初次写作时就要使用正确的词汇。

7. Don’t tell people how to travel; show them your vacation photos.
7. 不要告诉人们如何旅行;让他们看你的度假照片。

Grandstanding on topics you know little about makes you disingenuous—your deception oozes from every paragraph to an informed reader. Instead, hop off your soap box and don’t preach, be the Sherpa; share what you’ve learned in an honest way. People love following a journey.
在自己知之甚少的话题上哗众取宠,会让读者感觉你不诚实——在有见地的读者眼中,你的每一段文字都透露着欺骗。相反,离开你的临时讲台,停止说教,像夏尔巴人一样;用诚实的方式告诉读者你所知道的。人们喜欢效仿别人的旅程。

8. An idea is nothing without a reaction.
8. 得不到反馈的想法一无是处。

Reactions are oxygen for writing. Until you get feedback on what you’ve said, your analysis can only reveal so much. Be prepared for critiques and criticism; great work is contingent on a willingness to be judged.
反馈是决定一篇文章成败的关键。在你所写的内容得到任何反馈之前,你的分析并不会带来更多启示。做好面对批评的准备;一篇文章成功与否,取决于作者愿意接受评判的程度。

9. “Just write” is tired advice, but still needed.
9. “坚持写下去就行”虽是一条老套的建议,但依旧很有必要。

If you’re looking for a way to make hard work easy, you won’t find it in writing. You’ll struggle with the blank page until your butt falls off the chair—but until that day, keep sitting down and do the work.
如果你想找一种化繁为简的方式,别考虑写作。你会在空白页面前苦苦挣扎,直到从椅子上摔下去——一定要坚持下去,完成写作。

10. Meandering endings can sour good writing; approach them quickly.
10. 曲折的结尾会让一篇好文章失分;结尾要干脆利落。

I’ll let Paul Graham handle this one: “Learn to recognize the approach of an ending, and when one appears, grab it.”
我将用保罗•格拉汉姆的话作为本文的结尾:“学会辨认结尾的方法。遇到好的结尾,把它记下来。”(财富中文网)



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