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你不可不知的法律相关术语

2015-02-26    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

你不可不知的法律相关术语

法律的前世今生:

Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries. The Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community; a rule or mode of conduct or action that is prescribed or formally recognized as binding by a supreme controlling authority or is made obligatory by a sanction (as an edict, decree, prescript, order, ordinance, statute, resolution, rule, judicial decision, or usage) made, recognized, or enforced by the controlling authority."
几千年以来,关于“法律”(law)一词的定义,曾出现过很多版本。《韦氏第三版新国际字典》对其的定义是:“法律是一个社区内的约束性习俗或惯例;由最高权力机构规定或正式认可为有约束力的法则或行为准则,或是由该权力机构作出的、认可的或者执行的带有强制性的裁决(包括法令、政令、规定、命令、条例、法规、决议、规则、司法决定或者司法践行)。”
 
The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, and complex mode of regulating human conduct. At the same time it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are also of great importance."
斯克里布纳尔出版社在1973年出版的《思想史字典》由此将法律这一概念定义为:“法律体系是用于约束人类行为的最明晰、最成体系又最复杂的规则。同时,它又仅仅是影响人类行为的众多规则集合中的一个部分,因为,较为缺乏体系的社会和道德守则也是很重要的。”
 
The earliest lawbook was written about 2100 B.C. for Ur-Nammu, king of Ur, a Middle Eastern city-state. Within three centuries Hammurabi, king of Babylonia, had enumerated laws of private conduct, business and legal precedents, of which 282 articles have survived. The term "eye for an eye" (or the equivalent value) is found there, as is drowning as punishment for adultery by a wife (while a husband could have slave concubines), and unequal treatment of the rich and the poor was codified here first. It took another thousand years before written law codes developed among the Greek city-states (particularly Athens) and Israel. China developed similar rules of conduct, as did Egypt.
最早的法典约在公元前2100年写成,是为中东一个名为乌尔的城邦国王所写。在之后的300年间,古巴比伦国的国王列出了包括个人行为、商业行为以及法律先例等在内的各类法条,其中有282项条款得以保留。“以眼还眼”(或者同样对待)就出现在这个时期的法律中;同时还有,妻子通奸被处以溺刑(丈夫可以有妻奴),另外还首次出现贫富区别对待的条款。之后又经历了数千年,希腊各城邦(尤其是雅典)和以色列才出现了书面法典。中国和埃及也制定了类似的法典。


法律相关术语:
法律的历史悠久,但是想要给“法律”下一个明确的定义似乎也不太可能,那我们就来说一说英文中由这个词衍生出来的一些词汇和表达吧。
1. Legal
According to law, not in violation of law or anything related to the law.
Legal一词指“法定的”、“合法的”或“与法律相关的”。
比如:legal system 法律体系,legal action 法律行动, legal loophole 法律漏洞, legal identity 合法身份。
 
2. Legitimate
Legal, proper, real; (a child) born to parents who are married; to make proper and/or legal.
Legitimate做形容词时指“合法的、正当的”或“合法婚姻所生的”,做动词时则指“使…合法”。
如:legitimate business activities 合法经营活动,legitimate reason 正当理由,legitimate the process 使程序合法化等。
 
3. Legislature
The group of people who have the power to make and pass laws.
Legislature指有权力制定并颁布法律的组织,即“立法机构”。
我国的最高立法机构(top legislature)就是全国人民代表大会(National People’s Congress, NPC)。
 
4. Legislation
Law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or the process of making it.
Legislation指已经由立法机构通过程序颁布的法律,我们多译为“立法”,因为该词更强调立法机构立法的过程。
大家有没有发现上面讲到的四个词都是以leg开头的?这个leg是英文里的一个词根,来源于拉丁语 legalis(法律)。其他类似的词还有:legislate(v. 立法),legislator (n. 立法者),legist(n. 法律学者)等。(英语点津)



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