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双语:联合国宪章(1)

2015-11-09    来源:联合国    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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 《联合国宪章》是联合国的基本大法,它既确立了联合国 的宗旨、原则和组织机构设置,又规定了成员国的责任、权利和义务,以及处理国际关系、维护世界和平与安全的基本原则和方法。遵守联合国宪章、维护联合国威信是每个成员国不可推脱的责任。

 
1945年6月26日,来自50个国家的代表在美国旧金山签署了《联合国宪章》。同年10月24日起生效,联合国正式成立。1947年10月,联合国大会把10月24日定为“联合国日” 。
 
《联合国宪章》除序言和结语外,共分19章111条。国际法院规约是《联合国宪章》的组成部分。 宪章规定,联合国的宗旨是“维护国际和平及安全”、“制止侵略行为”、“发展国际间以尊重各国人民平等权利自决原则为基础的友好关系”和“促成国际合作”等;它还规定联合国及其成员国应遵循各国主权平等、各国以和平方式解决国际争端、在国际关系中不使用武力或武力威胁以及联合国不得干涉各国内政等原则。
Chapter I
CHAPTER I: PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
 
Article 1
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
 
To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;
To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.
 
Article 2
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.
 
The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.
All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.
All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter Vll.

 第一章

第一章:宗旨及原则
 
 
第一条
联合国之宗旨为:
一、维持国际和平及安全;并为此目的:采取有效集体办法,以防止且消除对于和平之威胁,制止侵略行为或其他和平之破坏;并以和平方法且依正义及国际法之原则,调整或解决足以破坏和平之国际争端或情势。
 
二、发展国际间以尊重人民平等权利及自决原则为根据之友好关系,并采取其他适当办法,以增强普遍和平。
 
三、促成国际合作,以解决国际间属于经济、社会、文化及人类福利性质之国际问题,且不分种族、性别、语言或宗教,增进并激励对于全体人类之人权及基本自由之尊重。
 
四、构成一协调各国行动之中心,以达成上述共同目的。
 
第二条
为求实现第一条所述各宗旨起见,本组织及其会员国应遵行下列原则:
 
一、本组织系基于各会员国主权平等之原则。
 
二、各会员国应一秉善意,履行其依本宪章所担负之义务,以保证全体会员国由加入本组织而发生之权益。
 
三、各会员国应以和平方法解决其国际争端,俾免危及国际和平、安全及正义。
 
四、各会员国在其国际关系上不得使用威胁或武力,或以与联合国宗旨不符之任何其他方法,侵害任何会员国或国家之领土完整或政治独立。
 
五、各会员国对于联合国依本宪章规定而采取之行动,应尽力予以协助,联合国对于任何国家正在采取防止或执行行动时,各会员国对该国不得给予协助。
 
六、本组织在维持国际和平及安全之必要范围内,应保证非联合国会员国遵行上述原则。
 
七、本宪章不得认为授权联合国干涉在本质上属于任何国家国内管辖之事件,且并不要求会员国将该项事件依本宪章提请解决;但此项原则不妨碍第七章内执行办法之适用。


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