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双语:联合国宪章(12)

2015-11-24    来源:联合国    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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 CHAPTER XII: INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM

 
Article 75
The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories.
 
Article 76
The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:
 
a. to further international peace and security;
 
b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories, and their progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned, and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement;
 
c. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world; and
 
d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations and their nationals, and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of justice, without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the provisions of Article 80.
 
Article 77
   1 The trusteeship system shall apply to such territories in the following categories as may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship agreements: 
 
a. territories now held under mandate;
 
b. territories which may be detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War; and
 
c. territories voluntarily placed under the system by states responsible for their administration.
 
   2 It will be a matter for subsequent agreement as to which territories in the foregoing categories will be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what terms.
 
Article 78
The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality.
 
Article 79
The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and 85.
 
Article 80
Except as may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements, made under Articles 77, 79, and 81, placing each territory under the trusteeship system, and until such agreements have been concluded, nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties.
Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.
Article 81
The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory. Such authority, hereinafter called the administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself.
 
Article 82
There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article 43.
 
Article 83
All functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment shall be exercised by the Security Council.
The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each strategic area.
The Security Council shall, subject to the provisions of the trusteeship agreements and without prejudice to security considerations, avail itself of the assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those functions of the United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to political, economic, social, and educational matters in the strategic areas.
Article 84
It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.
 
Article 85
The functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as strategic, including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment, shall be exercised by the General Assembly.
The Trusteeship Council, operating under the authority of the General Assembly shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions.
 

 第十二章:国际托管制度

 
 
第七十五条
联合国在其权力下,应设立国际托管制度,以管理并监督凭此后个别协定而置于该制度下之领土。此项领土以下简称托管领土。
 
第七十六条
按据本宪章第一条所载联合国之宗旨,托管制度之基本目的应为:
 
(子) 促进国际和平及安全。
 
(丑) 增进托管领土居民之政治、经济、社会及教育之进展;并以适合各领土及其人民之特殊情形及关系人民自由表示之愿望为原则,且按照各托管协定之条款,增进其趋向自治或独立之逐渐发展。
 
(寅) 不分种族、性别、语言或宗教,提倡全体人类之人权及基本自由之尊重,并激发世界人民互相维系之意识。
 
(卯) 于社会、经济及商业事件上,保证联合国全体会员国及其国民之平等待遇,及各该国民于司法裁判上之平等待遇,但以不妨碍上述目的之达成,且不违背第八十条之规定为限。
 
第七十七条
一、托管制度适用于依托管协定所置于该制度下之下列各种类之领土:
 
(子) 现在委任统治下之领土。
 
(丑) 因第二次世界大战结果或将自敌国割离之领土。
 
(寅) 负管理责任之国家自愿置于该制度下之领土。
 
二、关于上列种类中之何种领土将置于托管制度之下,及其条件,为此后协定所当规定之事项。
 
第七十八条
凡领土已成为联合国之会员国者,不适用托管制度;联合国会员国间之关系,应基于尊重主权平等之原则。
 
第七十九条
置于托管制度下之每一领土之托管条款,及其更改或修正,应由直接关系各国、包括联合国之会员国而为委任统治地之受托国者,予以议定,其核准应依第八十三条及第八十五条之规定。
 
第八十条
一、除依第七十七条、第七十九条及第八十一条所订置各领土于托管制度下之个别托管协定另有议定外,并在该项协定未经缔结以前,本章任何规定绝对不得解释为以任何方式变更任何国家或人民之权利、或联合国会员国个别签订之现有国际约章之条款。
 
二、本条第一项不得解释为对于依第七十七条之规定而订置委任统治地或其他领土于托管制度下之协定,授以延展商订之理由。
 
第八十一条
凡托管协定均应载有管理领土之条款,并指定管理托管领土之当局。该项当局,以下简称管理当局,得为一个或数个国家,或为联合国本身。
 
第八十二条
于任何托管协定内,得指定一个或数个战略防区,包括该项协定下之托管领土之一部或全部,但该项协定并不妨碍依第四十三条而订立之任何特别协定。
 
第八十三条
一、联合国关于战略防区之各项职务,包括此项托管协定条款之核准、及其更改或修正,应由安全理事会行使之。
 
二、第七十六条所规定之基本目的,适用于每一战略防区之人民。
 
三、安全理事会以不违背托管协定之规定且不妨碍安全之考虑为限,应利用托管理事会之协助,以履行联合国托管制度下关于战略防区内之政治、经济、社会及教育事件之职务。
 
第八十四条
管理当局有保证托管领土对于维持国际和平及安全尽其本分之义务。该当局为此目的得利用托管领土之志愿军、便利及协助,以履行该当局对于安全理事会所负关于此点之义务,并以实行地方自卫,且在托管领土内维持法律与秩序。
 
第八十五条
一、联合国关于一切非战略防区托管协定之职务,包括此项托管协定条款之核准及其更改或修正,应由大会行使之。
 
二、托管理事会于大会权力下,应协助大会履行上述之职务。


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