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英语新词:西藏新旧制度不可不知的词汇

2015-09-09    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

英语新词:西藏新旧制度不可不知的词汇

在中国,西藏是一个藏族占多数的民族聚居区,目前总人口317.55万,其中藏族占92%以上;除藏族外,西藏还有汉族、蒙古族、回族、纳西族、怒族、独龙族、门巴族、珞巴族以及僜人、夏尔巴人等40多个民族成分。根据中国宪法,国家在西藏实行民族区域自治制度,建立西藏自治区,并设有门巴、珞巴、纳西等民族乡,依法保障西藏各族人民平等参与管理国家和地方事务的政治权利。

新制度

民族区域自治
regional ethnic autonomy

民族乡
ethnic township

和平解放
peaceful liberation

民主改革
democratic reform

自治区成立
establishment of the autonomous region

十七条协议
the "17-Article Agreement"

“因俗而治”“因事而治”
special policies based on "special local customs and conditions"

管理西藏地方社会事务的主人
managers of local social affairs

西藏社会物质财富、精神财富的创造者和享有者
creating and sharing the material and spiritual wealth of Tibet

团结稳定是福、分裂动乱是祸
unity and stability are a blessing while secession and riots are a scourge.


旧制度

政教合一的封建农奴制
feudal serfdom under theocracy

《十六法典》
16-Article Code

《十三法典》
13-Article Code

三等九级
three classes and nine ranks

大贵族、大活佛和高级官员
nobles, Living Buddhas and senior officials

上等人“命价为与尸体等重的黄金”
The value of the life of a person of the upper class was measured in gold according to his weight.

下等人“命价仅值一根草绳”
Others of the lowest rank of the lower class was equivalent to hempen rope.

人不无主、地不无差
All serfs have owners and all plots of land are assigned.

三大领主(官家、贵族、寺庙上层僧侣)
three major estate-holders (local government officials, nobles and upper-ranking lamas in monasteries)

人役税
servitude tax

“差巴”(领种份地,向农奴主支差役的人)
"tralpa" (people who tilled plots of land assigned to them and who were obligated to provide corvee labor for serf owners)

“堆穷”(意为冒烟的小户)
"duiqoin" (small households with chimneys emitting smoke)

“朗生”(一无所有,世代为奴)
"nangzan" (hereditary household slaves who were deprived of any means of production and personal freedom)

乌拉差(一种包括徭役、赋税、地(畜)租在内的含义十分广泛的差税总称)
corvee labor - a broad term covering not only corvee, but taxes and levies, and rents for land and livestock

子孙债
debts passed down from previous generations

连保债
debts resulting from joint liability

集体摊派债
debts apportioned among all the serfs


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