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三位科学家因破解大脑“奖赏系统”获奖

2017-07-27    来源:BBC    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

文字稿

主要工作地点在英国的三位科学家被授予了享有盛誉的大脑奖(The Brain Prize),并共同领取了一百万欧元的奖金。他们对大脑“奖赏回路”的研究及解读揭示了我们为何想要去购物、吃饭甚至是登月的深层原因。获得回报是我们能保持生命力的必要因素之一,但失去控制的大脑奖赏中心会导致一系列无节制的强迫性行为。请听 Fergus Walsh 的报道

Should I eat in that restaurant? Should I apply for a new job? Where should I go on holiday? What underpins our decision-making is a chemical in the brain called dopamine, which is released whenever there is a reward, such as a pleasant taste. It helps motivate us, and has been essential through evolution for human and animal development.

A strong dopamine response can drive us to repeat the same behaviour or strive for greater success. The dopamine reward pathway in the brain can also spiral out of control leading to compulsive behaviour and drug addiction.

The three neuroscientists, who share the million-euro prize given by the Lundbeck Foundation in Denmark, are all based in the UK, which has a track record of world-leading brain research. Their work will help in the development of treatments for patients with psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia where the reward system goes wrong.

媒体英语

词汇表

underpins 构成,支持
decision-making 决策过程
dopamine (化学)多巴胺
released 被释放
reward 奖赏,奖励
strive (长期艰难地)奋斗、努力
pathway (生物体中的)一连串化学反应
spiral out of control 急剧失控
neuroscientists 神经科学家
track record 记录、业绩
psychiatric 神经病学的
schizophrenia 精神分裂症

测验

请听报道并回答下列问题。

1. When does the brain release dopamine, according to the text?

2. What could happen if the dopamine reward pathway in the brain goes out of control?

3. True or false? The UK is known for its world-leading achievements in brain research.

4. Which word in the text means 'unable to stop doing something'?

答案


1. When does the brain release dopamine, according to the text?
According to the text, the brain releases a chemical called dopamine whenever there is a reward, such as a pleasant taste.

2. What could happen if the dopamine reward pathway in the brain goes out of control?
If the dopamine reward pathway in the brain spirals out of control, the result could be compulsive behaviour and drug addiction.

3. True or false? The UK is known for its world-leading achievements in brain research.
True. The UK has a track record of world-leading brain research.

4. Which word in the text means 'unable to stop doing something?
Compulsive.

 

 

 

 

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