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[农业报道]全球变暖下的农业危机

2014-01-23    来源:putclub    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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VOA Learning English, this is the Agriculture Report.

Insects and diseases that attack food crops are moving as risen temperatures bring changes to the environment. Plant diseases alone destroy an estimated 10 to 16 percent of the world's crops in the field, experts say, plant diseases destroy another 6 to 12 percent after harvest.

A new study examines the movement of crop pests and diseases, and how it will affect agricultural production worldwide.

Dan Bebber is a senior research fellow at the University of Exeter in Britain. He says research has shown that wild plants and animals are moving toward Earth's North and South poles as the planet warms.

Mr Bebber wanted to know if the same thing was happening with organisms that attack agricultural crops. He examined reports of first sightings of new insects and diseases around the world. The records came from CABI - the Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International. He says the group began collecting information from developing and industrialized countries years ago.

Dan Bebber and his research team studied 612 different organisms - from viruses and bacteria to insects like beetles and butterflies. They found that since 1960, crop pests and diseases have been moving toward the poles at an average rate of about 3 kilometers each year. Mr Bebber says this puts the most productive farmland in the world in danger.

"As new species of pests and diseases evolve and potentially the environment for them becomes more amenable at higher latitudes, the pressure on the breadbaskets of the world is going to increase."

Farmers face other threats. Invasive species passed through trade are also causing problems. Gene Kritsky is an Entomologist at the College of Mount St. Joseph in Ohio. He specializes in the study of insects. He says climate change may improve conditions for some invasive species.

"It means that species in other parts of the world that might do well in warmer temperatures can now do well in the breadbasket of America."

Another Entomologist Christian Krupke of Purdue University says the effects of these changes will depend very much on the crop, the insect and the disease. But he says the research is a warning sign that people should care about climate change and do something about it.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2013-10-08


这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道。

 

随着全球气温上升带给环境的变化,威胁粮食作物的虫害正在迁移。仅植物病害预计将带给全球田间作物造成10%至16%的损失,专家称,病害在收获后将造成6%至12%的损失。


一项新研究调查了作物虫害的迁移及如何对全球农业产量造成影响。

 


Dan Bebber 是英国埃克塞特大学的高级研究员。他称研究已经显示随着地球气温变暖,野生动植物正向地球南北极迁移。


Bebber先生想弄清楚侵害农作物的生物体是否也发生了类似变化。他研究了一份关于世界各地新型虫害的第一目击报告。这些记录来自国际应用生物科学中心(CABI)。他称该组织在多年前就开始从发展中和工业化国家收集信息。

 

 
Dan Bebber和他的研究团队研究了612种不同生物体(从病毒、细菌到甲虫和蝴蝶之类的昆虫)。他们发现从1960年开始,作物虫害一直以平均每年3000米的速度向两极迁移。Bebber 先生指出这将让全球最盛产的耕地陷入危机。

 
“随着虫害新物种的进化,高纬度的环境开始适合他们生存。全球食品产区的压力随之上升。”

 


农民还将面临其它挑战。通过贸易入侵的物种也将造成危机。Gene Kritsky 是俄亥俄州州圣约瑟夫山学院的昆虫学者,致力研究昆虫。他表示,气候变化将为入侵物种改善生存条件。

 


“这意味着世界它地的种类,如果能适应温暖气候,现在也能在美国粮食产区生存。”

 
另一位来自普度大学的昆虫学者Christian Krupke表示这些变化的影响很大程度上取决于农作及虫害。但是,他称该研究是向人们发起的的警告讯号,倡导人们关注气候变化并对此采取举措。



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