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[农业报道]如何解决害虫疾病问题

2014-02-28    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Agriculture Report.

Crop disease continues to be a problem for farmers everywhere. The non-profit Center for Agriculture and Biosciences International(CABI) says pests and diseases destroy up to 40 percent of the food grown worldwide.

The center based in Britain is trying to change that with a crop protection program, the program is called Plantwise. In the past three years, Plantwise has trained almost one thousand so-called plant doctors in 24 countries, one of those countries is Uganda.

Recently, plant doctor Daniel Lyazi set up a table under a small tent, join market day in Mukono, the village is about 15 kilometers from Kampala, the capital.

People brought samples of diseased plants to his clinic. One farmer brought cabbage covered in slime. Nothing can be done to save his cabbages this year, but Daniel Lyazi's advice may save the next season's crop.

"So he's telling me there's a small caterpillar which eats [the cabbages] starting from the youngest leaf. He's told me that the whole garden has been attacked and affected by this caterpillar. So according to me, I know that it's a diamondback moth."

The farmer has been using an insecticide but Mr Lyazi says the chemical is the wrong one.

"It's tolerant - it doesn't kill the diamondback moth caterpillar. So I'm recommending him to use another insecticide called Fenkill, and in another planting season he should plant with onions. Onions can repel (the caterpillar) and he can get income."

He advises the farmer to plant onions between the rows of cabbages as an additional measure of protection. The clinic lasts about three hours, in that time Daniel Lyazi advises about 20 farmers. The clinic takes place twice-a-month, it started last year.

The Plantwise program says there are now about 90 of these clinics in Uganda, this year donors spent close to $300,000 training plant doctors and expanding the system in the country.

Joseph Mulema coordinates the Plantwise program in Uganda and Zambia. He argues that plant clinics are a far more effective way to get advice to farmers than the traditional model. In the traditional model, agricultural extension workers visit farms.

"Plant clinics can help so many farmers in a very short time. In fact, more farmers are seen in a plant clinic session, if good mobilization is done, than actually an extension officer can look at in an entire month."

Robert Karyeija is a crop protection officer for the government. He says training plant doctors has been very important, this is because even though there were thousands of agricultural extension workers, they just didn't know enough.

"They were there. But the problem [was] they would be general agriculturalists who knew agronomy but didn't know much about pests and diseases."

Since 2010, The Center for Agriculture and Biosciences International has set up Plantwise clinics in 12 African countries - nine of them in East Africa and three in West Africa.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2013-10-22


这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道。

农作物疾病一直是各地农民面临的问题。非盈利性的国际农业和生物科学中心(CABI)表示害虫和疾病毁掉世界上40%的粮食。

这家位于英国的中心试图通过一项名为Plantwise的项目来改变这一现状。在过去的三年里,Plantwise项目已经在24个国家,培养了近千名农作物医生,其中一个国家就是乌干达。

近来,农作物医生Daniel Lyazi在一个小帐篷里摆了一张桌子,参加Mukono村的赶集日。该村距离首都坎帕拉有15公里。

人们带着生病的植物样本来到他的诊所。一位弄明带着被粘液覆盖的白菜。今年没有办法再救活这些白菜了,但是Daniel Lyazi的建议会在下一年拯救这些白菜。

“医生告诉我白菜上面有毛虫,毛虫从最嫩的叶子开始吃。他说整个菜园都被这种毛虫侵袭和影响。据我所知,这些都是菜蛾。”

农民一直在用杀虫剂,但是Lyazi认为他用错化学药品了。

“这种杀虫剂不能杀死菜蛾,所以我建议他用另外一种名为 Fenkill的杀虫剂。并且下个种植季节,他应该中洋葱。洋葱可以除掉毛虫,这样他就有收入了。”

他建议农民在白菜行列之间种植洋葱,作为额外的保护方案。该诊所持续了大概三个小时,期间Daniel Lyazi给20位农民提供了建议。诊所每月营业两次,从去年开始的。

Plantwise项目认为现在在乌干达有90%这样的诊所。今年捐助者花了近30万美元来培训作物医生,并在该国扩大了系统的规模。

Joseph Mulema负责协调乌干达和赞比亚的Plantwise项目。他认为作物诊所在为农民提供意见方面,比传统的模式更有效。在传统模式中,是由农业推广人员到农场参观。

“植物诊所可以在短时间内帮到很多农民。事实上,如果动员的好,农作物诊所比农业推广人员一个月里帮助的农民还多。”

Robert Karyeija是政府作物一位农作物保护官员。他认为,培训作物医生已经变得非常重了。这是因为即使有数千名农技推广人员,他们也所知有限。”

“他们一直都在这里,但问题是他们是普通的农学家,懂得农学,但是对疾病和虫害不太懂。”

从2010开始,国际农业和生物科学中心已经在12个非洲国家设立了Plantwise诊所,其中9个国家在东非,3个在西非。



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