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[农业报道]转基因食物你能接受么?

2014-03-26    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Agriculture Report.
 
The World Food Prize has been awarded to three developers of genetically modified crops, or GMOs. Mary-Dell Chilton, Marc van Montagu and Rob Fraley received the award on October 17th.
 
The award praises the technology they created for being able to increase the quantity and availability of food, it also says GMOs help deal with a growing world population and changes in weather patterns. But the selection of the three scientists has been criticized by people who question the safety and value of GMOs.
 
In the 1970s, Marc van Montagu, a Belgian scientist discovered bacteria in soil performing a kind of natural genetic engineering. He found that the bacteria placed a piece of their genetic material, or DNA inside the plant cells, the cells then produce chemicals that work good for the bacteria.
 
"Once we [saw] bacteria can insert DNA to give a new property to a plant, we were able to replace that part of the DNA [with] DNA that we want that gives new, useful properties to the plant," van Montagu said.
 
His work was the beginning of plant biotechnology. Mary-Dell Chilton and Rob Fraley both Americans, produced the first genetically modified plants using that technology.
 
Ms Chilton was studying a common plant infection called crown gall when she witnessed the same thing as Mr van Montagu. She discovered that it forms when a germ called Agrobacterium puts a piece of its own DNA into the plant cell's genes, the plant then makes food for the bacteria.
 
Ms Chilton, Mr van Montagu and Mr Fraley along with the Monsanto company created the technology to reproduce plants while changing their DNA.
 
Genetic engineering can add information to plants to produce different kinds of things, such as a protein that kills insects. Farmers quickly accepted and supported the new technology first used in 1996. Nearly all the corn and cotton grown in the United States is made with GMOs.
 
The World Food Prize organization in the American state of IOWA says 17 million farmers worldwide grew GMO crops in 2012. It says the technology increased production and reduced the usage of harmful chemical on crops.
 
Doug Gurian-Sherman is a scientist with the Union of Concerned Scientists. He says the technology could be useful, but as there is no proof it is necessary to feed the world.
 
"My understanding of the prize is you should be giving it to people that have shown major positive, unequivocally positive accomplishments in world agriculture. And I don't see, so far, this technology being anywhere near that yet," Gurian-Sherman said.
 
Opposition to GMOs is also spreading. In the Philippines, protesters destroyed test fields of rice that had been genetically engineered to produce vitamin A.
 
And that's the Agriculture Report from VOA Learning English. I'm Christopher Cruise.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2013-11-05


这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道。

三位转基因作物(GMOs)研发者Mary-Dell Chilton、 Marc van Montagu 和Rob Fraley于10月17日荣获世界粮食奖。

此奖表彰了他们研发的技术能增加粮食产量和可用性。转基因作物有助于解决全球日益增长的人口问题及应对气候变化。但是评选这三位科学家遭到质疑转基因作物安全性和营养价值人们的指责。

20世纪70年代,比利时科学家Marc van Montagu发现土壤中的细菌在进行一种自然基因工程,他发现细菌将其部分遗传物质(DNA)注入植物细胞后,细胞将产生对细菌有利的化学物质。

van Montagu 说;“我们曾经发现细菌通过注入DNA,赋予植物全新的特性,我们可以将部分DNA替换成我们想要的DNA,赋予植物全新而有用的特性。”

他的成果是植物生物科技的开端。美国人Mary-Dell Chilton和Rob Fraley通过该技术生产了首批转基因作物。

 Chilton女士在研究一种叫细菌性根癌病的常见植物感染时亲眼目睹了如van Montagu先生所见一样的事情。她发现当一种称为农杆菌的细菌将其自己的DNA注入植物细胞基因后,植物会为细菌提供食物。

Chilton女士和van Montagu先生及Fraley先生与Monsanto公司合作,通过改变植物DNA重新繁殖植物。

基因工程可以向植物增加信息,产生各种物质,比如可以杀虫的蛋白质。农民很快接受并支持这种于1996年首次得到应用的新技术。几乎所有美国种植的玉米和棉花都是转基因的。

美国爱荷华州的世界粮食组织称2012年全球1700万农民采用转基因种庄稼并称该技术不但增产还减少了有害化学剂的使用。
Doug Gurian-Sherman是忧思科学家联盟的一名科学家,他表示该技术很有用,但是缺乏证据表明其对养活世界人口有必要。

Gurian-Sherman 称:“我认为该奖项是颁给对全球农业已经体现出重积极贡献的人,但是迄今为止,我并未发现该技术能满足这个要求。”

反转基因的声音日益见涨。在菲律宾,反对者毁坏了通过转基因生产维他命A的水稻测试地。

这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道,我是克里斯多夫•克鲁斯。



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