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VOA慢速[农业报道]拯救土地盐碱化

2014-12-26    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Agriculture Report.

Climate change has caused a rise in sea levels. This has increased the amount of salt in fresh water used on coastal farms. As a result farmers are increasingly unable to use fields close to the sea.

Scientists call this process “salinization.” The term comes from the word “saline” -- which means a mixture of salt and water. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization says salinization is reducing the world’s irrigated lands by 1 to 2 percent every year. Irrigation is the process of supplying land with fresh water from other areas.

But a farmer in the Netherlands is now using a mixture of sea and fresh water to grow healthy and tasty vegetables. Marc Van Rijsselberghe started with an experiment. He put several kinds of plants in saline.

“We put in a lot of plants in the fields and then we put in, put them in fresh water and in sea water and all the varieties between it, and then we see which variety is surviving and which variety is dying.”

Mr. Van Rijsselberghe worked on the project with scientists from the Free University of Amsterdam. He divided a farm into eight irrigated areas. Separate pipes pumped fresh and sea water, and a computer program created water with eight levels of salinity.

“And then computer says ‘go’ and then it goes to the fields and dripping irrigation starts to work and we are going to kill plants. That’s it.”

Computerized measuring devices called “sensors” controlled the water levels and the levels of salinity. Mr. Van Rijsselberghe says he was able to harvest vegetables from most of the eight test areas. He says the vegetables were smaller than those grown in fresh water. But he says they also have more sugar and salt, so they taste better.

“It’s a miracle. I mean, it shouldn’t be a carrot, it should be dying if we look at the datas that are available in the world at the moment.”

The farmer grew carrots, cabbage, onions and beetroot. But he found that potatoes grew better than the other vegetables in the combination of sea and fresh water. Mr. Van Rijsselberghe says four kinds of these potatoes were recently sent to Pakistan, where thousands of hectares of land have been damaged by salinization. Farmers in Pakistan will test the Dutch potatoes to see if they can be grown in those fields.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-11-25


气候变化引起了海平面上涨。这就增加了沿海农场淡水中盐分的含量。最终会导致农民无法再使用靠近海域的土地。

科学家们称这个过程叫“盐碱化”。这个术语源自于“生理盐水”这个单词,这就表示其中混合盐和水。联合国粮食和农业组织表示,盐碱化使灌溉土地每年减少1%-2%。

但是一位荷兰的农民现在正在用混合海水和淡水培育健康美味的蔬菜。Marc Van Rijsselberghe最先开始做这个实验。他把几种植物放到了生理盐水中。

“我们把很多植物中在土壤里,然后又把他们挖出来,放到淡水和海水里,个各种类混杂到一起。然后我们再观察哪种会幸存,哪种会死掉。”


Marc Van Rijsselberghe和阿姆斯特丹大学的科学家一起进行该项目。他把灌溉田分成了八块。分别用淡水和海水进行灌溉,并且用电脑程序配置八个级别的盐水。

“电脑发出‘开始’指令,就会开始灌溉土地,我们就将开始杀死植物。就是这样。”

计算机测量装置叫做“感测器”,控制水位和盐的水平度。Mr. Van Rijsselberghe表示,他可以从八块实验地里大获丰收很多蔬菜。他说,比起生长在淡水区,蔬菜收获的量要少些,但是他说这些蔬菜里含有更多糖分和盐分,所以吃起来味道更好。

“这是一个奇迹。我的意思是,它本不该是一个胡萝卜的,如果我们看看世界上可用的数据,它本来是会死掉的。”

农民种植胡萝卜,卷心菜,洋葱和甜菜根。但是他发现,混合和海水淡水的环境里,土豆比其他蔬菜长得更好。Mr. Van Rijsselberghe说最近有四种土豆会被送到巴基斯坦。巴基斯坦有上千公顷土地被盐碱化。巴基斯坦弄明将会测试荷兰土豆是否能在这片土地上种植。



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