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[经济报道]企业知识知多少

2014-02-14    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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This is the VOA Learning English Economics Report.

Businesses are structured in different ways to meet different needs.

The simplest form of business is called an individual or sole proprietorship. The proprietor owns all of the property of the business and is responsible for everything.

For legal purposes, with this kind of business, the owner and the company are the same. This means the proprietor gets to keep all of the profits of the business, but must also pay any debts.

Another kind of business is the partnership. Two or more people go into business together. An agreement is usually needed to decide how much of the partnership each person controls.

One kind of partnership is called a limited liability partnership. These have full partners and limited partners. Limited partners may not share as much in the profits, but they also have less responsibility for the business.

Doctors, lawyers and accountants often form partnerships to share their risks and profits. A husband and wife can form a business partnership together.

Partnerships exist only for as long as the owners remain alive. The same is true of individual proprietorships.

But corporations are designed to have an unlimited lifetime. A corporation is the most complex kind of business organization.

Corporations can sell stock as a way to raise money. Stock represents shares of ownership in a company. Investors who buy stock can trade their shares or keep them as long as the company is in business.

A company might use some of its earnings to pay dividends as a reward to shareholders. Or the company might reinvest the money back into the business.

If shares lose value, investors can lose all of the money they paid for their stock. But shareholders are not responsible for the debts of the corporation.

A corporation is recognized as an entity -- its own legal being, separate from its owners.

A board of directors controls corporate policies. The directors appoint top company officers. The directors might or might not hold shares in the corporation.

Corporations can have a few major shareholders. Or ownership can be spread among the general public.

But not all corporations are traditional businesses that sell stock. Some nonprofit groups are also organized as corporations.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2013-10-11


这里是美国之音慢速英语经济报道。

企业以不同的结构方式存在,以满足不同的需求。

企业最简单的形式叫独资企业。企业主拥有全部资产,同时也承担一切责任。

从法律角度来讲,独资企业等同于企业。这就意味着,企业主将会获得所有利润,但是也必须支付一切债务。

另外一种企业方式是合伙企业。两个及两个以上的人合伙经营。合伙人之间需要共同拟定协议,用以决定各自所控股份。

有一种合伙企业叫做有限责任合伙企业。其中包括普通合伙人和有限责任合伙人。有限责任合伙人可能享受的收益不高,但是他们对企业承担的责任也相对较少。

医生,律师和会计们经常合伙组建企业,分担风险和收益。一对夫妇也可以组建合伙企业。

合伙企业只在企业主存在的情况下成立。独营企业也是如此。

但是公司没有经营时间限制,这是最复杂的企业组织形式。

公司可以卖出股份作为筹集资金的方式。股票代表公司所有权。买了股份的投资者可以出售自己的股份,或者长期持有,只要公司还在运营。

公司可能会用赚到的一部分钱,作为股息奖给股东。或者可能把钱再次投入经营。

如果股份失去价值,投资者就会损失掉所有投到股份里的钱。但是股东不会为了公司的债务负责。

一个公司被认为是合法存在的实体——独立法人,与股东是分离的。

董事会控制公司的决定。董事会任命公司高层员工。董事会在公司里不一定是该公司股东。

公司可能只有几个重要股东。或者所有权被公众所持有。

但是也不是所有的公司都是卖股份这种传统的商业模式。有些非盈利性组织也是以公司形式存在。



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