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[经济报道]对移民佣人的改革保护政策

2014-05-30    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Economics Report.

Many migrant women go to work in private homes as cleaners, cooks and caretakers. They are called domestic workers.

Recently, several incidents in Asia and the Middle East have brought attention to abuse of these workers. A court in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia sentenced a married couple to death in March for starving to death a 26-year-old Indonesian domestic worker.

Another Indonesian maid, 23-year-old Erwiana Sulistyaningsih says she was abused as a worker in a home in Hong Kong. She spent almost a month in a hospital receiving treatment for her injuries. Pictures of those injuries and reports of her 20-hour workdays caused national anger.

The International Labor Organization, or ILO is a United Nations agency. It suggests there are 50 million homeworkers globally. Around 5 million Indonesian women worked in other countries last year. They sent almost $10 billion back to their families. But labor rights supporters say these migrant workers can be targets of abuse.

Audrey Guichon is with Anti-Slavery International. She says the foreign labor program in the Middle East called the kafala system can leave workers open to abuse.

"The kafala system is in place across all countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which basically ties migrants' employment and residency to one single employer." Guichon said.

In Saudi Arabia, 42 Indonesians are awaiting death sentences. Half of them are believed to be domestic workers. Darsem Tawar faced a death sentence in 2011 for killing her employer. She argued that he was raping her at the time. Officials changed her sentence only after her supporters paid the family of the dead man.

In April, the Indonesian government negotiated better conditions for its workers in Saudi Arabia. The agreement signals the end of Indonesia's three-year suspension of labor exports to the kingdom. However, critics say Indonesia must do more.

The ILO approved Convention 189 on domestic labor in 2011. Support for the document on labor rights is building. But only 13 countries have approved or ratified the measure. One of them, the Philippines is the world's largest exporter of domestic labor and important supporter of Convention 189.

Archana Kotecha is a legal expert at the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Liberty Asia. She says labor export can become similar to human trafficking, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh and Burma, also known as Myanmar.

And that is the Economics Report for VOA Learning English. I'm Mario Ritter.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-05-09


这里是美国之音慢速英语经济报道

有许多移民妇女到私人家里担任清洁工,厨师和看护员。他们都被称为家政从业人员。

近来,亚洲和中东地区的一些事件引起了人们对用人虐待事件的关注。今年三月,马来西亚吉隆坡的一家法院判处一对夫妇死刑,因为他们饿死了26岁的印尼籍佣人。

另外一个23岁的印度尼西亚女佣Erwiana Sulistyaningsih表示,她在香港一户人家里做佣人时,遭到了虐待。她几乎在医院呆了一个月治疗身上的伤。那些受伤的照片以及她每天工作20个小时的报道引起了国民的愤怒。

国际劳工组织(简称ILO)是一家联合国机构。该机构指出,全球有5000万佣人。去年,有500玩印度尼西亚妇女在其他国家打工。他们往家里寄了近100亿美元。但是劳动法支持者表示外籍佣人可能会成为被虐待的目标。

Audrey Guichon就职于国际反奴役组织。她认为在中东地区的被称为卡法拉系统的外籍劳工计划会让劳工面临虐待。

“卡法拉系统在所有海湾合作委员会国家都得到了应用。它将外籍人员的就业、居住同某个雇主捆绑了起来。”她说。

在沙特阿拉伯,有42位印度尼西人在等待死刑宣判。其中一半的人都是外籍佣人。Darsem Tawar在2011年因为杀了雇主而面临死刑。她辩护说,雇主当时要强奸她。有关官员在她的支持者赔偿了死者家属后才改判。

四月的时候,印尼政府为其在沙特的佣人争取到了更好的条件。该协议结束了印尼对沙特为期三年的暂缓劳务输出。然而,批评者称,印尼要做的还很多。

2011年,国际劳工组织通过了189号劳工公约。对该劳工权利文件的支持正在建立中。但只有13个国家通过了该措施。其中之一的菲律宾是全球最大的外籍佣人输出国以及189号公约的重要支持者。

Archana Kotecha是非政府组织自由亚洲的法律专家。她认为,劳务输出可能会演变成类似于贩卖人口,特别是在孟加拉国、缅甸等发展中国家。

这里是美国慢速之音英语经济报道。我是马里奥·里特(Mario Ritter)



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