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VOA慢速[经济报道]油价下降将使部分亚洲国家受益

2015-01-08    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Economics Report.

Today we tell you more about the effects of falling oil prices. Lower demand for oil and too much supply have sent prices to their lowest levels in five years.

Last week, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries decided to keep production at current levels. Representatives of the 12-nation group met in Vienna, Austria. They were unable to reach agreement on changing OPEC’s production targets.

Lower oil prices are causing economic hardship in some OPEC members. Officials there are exploring ways to cut government spending.

The president of Venezuela announced last week that he and other government officials should take pay cuts as part of budget reductions. The Reuters news service says the reductions are meant to answer the lower oil prices. It says Venezuela gets 96 percent of its export earnings from oil sales. The nation has among the highest inflation rates in Latin America.

Russia is a major oil exporter, but does not belong to OPEC. This week, Russia’s economic development ministry predicted that the Russian economy will shrink by eight-tenths of a percent in 2015. Oil exports are important to Russia. The value of Russian money has lost about 40 percent of its value this year compared to the American dollar. Observers have blamed the drop on falling profits from oil exports, and Western sanctions to punish Russian actions in Ukraine.

But economists say the fall in oil prices is helping economies in Asia. Andrew Colquhoun is with Hong Kong-based Fitch Ratings.

"Most Asia-Pacific economies are oil importers and therefore the decline in oil prices is kind of equivalent to a kind of income gain ..."

In a recent report, Fitch Ratings said China and most major Asian economies would effectively earn more money from sustained lower oil prices. Thailand spends 15 percent of national income on oil.

Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia all are moving to reduce oil price supports, or subsidies, which are often a major part in government spending.

Last month Indonesian President Joko Widodo raised subsidized fuel prices by over 30 percent. Trade unions and opposition parties criticized the move. The Indonesian government says it is providing social assistance to over 15 million people to ease the effect of higher fuel costs.

But some experts say it is a matter of time before prices recover. Jack Gerard is president of the American Petroleum Institute. He says demand for oil will rise, and prices will find an equilibrium.

And that’s the VOA Learning English Economics Report. I’m Mario Ritter.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-12-05


这里是美国之音的经济报道。

今天我们会讲一下石油价格下降所产生的更多影响。由于对石油需求降低,而供应较多,导致了五年内石油价格出现最低水平。

上周,石油输出国组织决定按照现有的水平生产石油。12国的代表在奥地利首都维也纳会面,他们没能就欧佩克的石油生产目标达成一致意见。

石油价格低导致欧佩克成员国出现经济困难,官员正在寻求办法削减政府开支。

委内瑞拉的总统宣布他和其他政府官员应该接受降薪作为削减预算的一部分。路透社新闻报道削减预算是应对低价油的一种方式,委内瑞拉96%的出口收入来自石油。委内瑞拉是拉丁美洲通货膨胀最高的国家。

俄罗斯是主要的石油输出国之一,但是它不属于欧佩克组织。这周,俄罗斯的经济发展部门预测2015年,俄罗斯的经济会缩减0.8%。石油输出对俄罗斯来说非常重要。与美元相比,俄罗斯的卢布面值已经贬值40%。观察者把利润的下降归因于石油出口,西方的制裁作为对俄罗斯在乌克兰所作所为的惩罚。

但是经济学家称石油价格的下降对亚洲经济有所帮助。安德鲁·科洪是香港惠誉国际评级的一员。

“大部分亚太经济体都是石油进口国,因此,石油价格的下降在某种程度上等于是增加了亚太经济体的收入...”

最近的一篇报道中,惠誉国际评级称中国和主要的亚洲经济体会从持续的低价石油中赚更多钱。泰国15%的收入用在购买石油上。

泰国、马来西亚和印度尼西亚会减少石油的资金扶持或者补助,而用在石油上的这部分资金占政府支出的主要部分。

上个月,印度尼西亚的总统佐科·维多多增加了30% 的燃油补贴。工会和反对党批评他这一行为。印度尼西亚政府称为1500万的人提供社会援助,帮助减轻高水平的燃油费用。

但是一些专家称油价恢复需要一些时间,杰克·格拉德是美国石油协会的主席,他说石油的需求会增长,石油价格会达到一个平衡。

这里是美国之音经济报道,我是马里奥·瑞特。



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