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VOA慢速[经济报道]工资增长仍低于危机前水平

2015-01-19    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Economics Report.

The International Labor Organization recently released a report suggesting that real wage growth in developed economies is close to unchanged. Real wage measure includes the effects of inflation. Developing economies are mainly responsible for world wage growth. 

The ILO report says world wage growth is below the 3 percent rate that existed before the economic crisis of 2008. It says wage growth has slowed to nearly zero percent in developed economies over the last two years.

Wages are growing by 6 percent in developing economies, like China and other Asian nations. Wage growth in Eastern Europe and central Asia is almost as high.

The ILO report says wages in rich nations are still about three times higher than in poor countries. It says workers in developed countries earn $3,000 a month on average compared to $1,000 a month for workers in developing nations.

Sandra Polaski is the Deputy Director-General for Policy at the ILO. She says wages affect inequality differently in different economies.

"The report shows that in many countries, wages represent the largest source of income for households with at least one member of working age. In developed economies, wages account for about 60 to 80 percent of total income before households pay taxes. In emerging and developing economies, wages are about 30 to 60 percent of total household income," said Polaski.

The report says developed nations had increased inequality because of job losses and big differences between the highest and lowest wage earners. But differences between highest and lowest wage earners decreased in some developing countries. 

The ILO says minimum wage policies -- rules for the lowest permitted wages, can play a strong part in dealing with poverty and inequality. Ms. Polaski disagrees with conservative critics of minimum wage policies. They say higher minimum wages mean fewer jobs. 

"What the evidence shows is that increases in minimum wages in the order of magnitude that we actually see, whether in the U.S. or in other economies, in fact do not have that negative effect on employment. Instead, employers find ways of making up through increases in productivity, better work organization, etc.," said Polaski.

The ILO says the weakening of collective bargaining in many countries has hurt wages. The report says labor productivity -- a measure of economic productivity, continues to rise faster than wages in developed economies. The result, says the ILO, is that workers and their families are seeing fewer gains than the owners of capital.

And that's the VOA Learning English Economics Report. I'm Christopher Cruise.

本文来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-12-12


这里是美国之音英语学习的经济报道。

国际劳工组织最近发表了一篇报道显示:发达国家的工资真正的涨幅几乎没有变化。真正采取的工资措施包括通货膨胀的影响。发展中国家对世界工资的涨幅有影响。

国际劳工组织的报告显示世界工资的增长比2008年经济危机前的增长水平要低3%。在过去的两年里,发展中国家的工资涨幅几乎为零。

像中国和其它一些亚洲国家之类的发展中国家的工资增长了6%。东欧和中亚的工资涨幅也很高。

国际劳工组织报告称发达国家的工资水平仍然是发展中国家工资的3倍。发达国家的工人每月平均能收入3000美元,而发展中国家的工人只能挣到1000美元。

Sandra Polaski是国际劳工组织负责政策的副总干事,她说不同的经济体对工资的不平等有所影响。

Polaski说:“报告显示在许多国家,工资是拥有至少一个工薪成员的家庭里最主要的收入来源。而在发达国家,工资收入只占家庭税前总收入的60%到80%。在新兴的发展中国家,工资占家庭总收入的30%到60%。”

报告显示由于失业以及高收入者与低收入者之间巨大的差距,导致发达国家的贫富差距加大。然而在一些发展中国家,高收入者和低收入者之间的收入差距减少了。

国际劳工组织声称:最低工资政策在解决贫困和不平等方面扮演着重要的角色。Polaski女士不同意保守派对最低工资政策的批评。保守派认为提高最低工资意味着就业机会更少。

Polaski说:“证据表明事实上无论在美国还是其它的经济体,在我们能看到的范围内,增加最低工资对于就业方面并没有什么不良影响。相反,雇主可以通过提高生产率,更好地组织工作等来弥补就业问题。”

国际劳工组织称很多国家的劳资双方就工资等问题的谈判损害了工资的增长。报告称发达国家的生产率——经济生产力措施,增长快于工资涨幅。最终导致相工人和家庭的收入比资本家的收入要少很多。

以上就是美国知音慢速英语的经济报道,我是Christopher Cruise。



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