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[教育报道]纪念废除学校种族隔离六十周年

2014-07-14    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Education Report.

Sixty years ago this month, the highest court in the United States changed American education. On May 17, 1954, all nine judges of the Supreme Court ruled against racial separation in public schools. The court says such segregation in schools violates the United States constitution.

Many school systems had separate schools for white students and black students at the time of the ruling. The system was the result of a court ruling from 1896, that decision had permitted so called "separate but equal" schools. Some schools had only white children, others had only black children.

About sixty years later, the case Brown vs the Board of Education came before the Supreme Court. It involved five separate legal actions, but it centered on an African-American child from the state of Kansas.

Linda Brown lived just short distance from a school, but she was forced to travel across town to a black school because the school near her permitted only white students.

Aderson Francois teaches law at Howard University in Washington D.C. He says the case ended official racial separation in the United States.

"Brown essentially ended American apartheid... if by that we mean the process by which the government officially classifies people by race," said Francois.

But Mr. Francois criticized the ruling because it did not set a time limit by which segregation had to end. As a result, some segregated schools in the south did not obey the Supreme Court ruling until the 1960s. Even today, many schools are still effectively segregated.

In 2012, the Civil Rights Project at the University of California studied racial populations in schools. The study showed that many schools are less racially mixed than forty years ago. The study says social and economic issues are partly to blame. It also says some court cases have weakened enforcement of desegregation.

That does not surprise education activist Jeanette Taylor. She came to Washington recently with other activists. They urged officials to act to stop putting more money into mainly white schools than those with many minority students.

"So we're here today to tell them to stop pushing bad policies," said Taylor.

Jitu Brown is with the Journey for Justice Alliance. He says separation based on race still exists. And he criticizes a recent Supreme Court decision, it ruled that the state of Michigan can bar public colleges and universities from considering a person's race when they decide whom to admit. Education officials say the number of African-American students has decreased at schools in states with similar bans.

And from VOA Learning English, that's the Education Report. I'm Jerilyn Watson.

 文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-05-29


这里是美国之音慢速英语教育报道。

60年前的这个月,美国最高法院改变了美国教育。1954年5月17日,最高法院的九名法官否决了公立学校的种族隔离。最高法院称,学校的这类隔离违反了美国宪法。

在判决的那个年代,许多学校系统都有分别面向白人学生和黑人学生的学校。该体系源于1896年一家法院的判决,该判决允许学校中所谓的“隔离但平等”原则。当时一些学校只有白人儿童,另一些则只有黑人儿童。

大约60年之后,布朗状告美国教育委员会一案走进了最高法院。该案涉及五个独立的法律行为,但都聚焦于堪萨斯州的一位非裔美国人的孩子。

琳达·布朗(Linda Brown)当时住得离一所学校不远,但她被迫穿过市中心到一所黑人学校上学,因为她家附近的学校只接收白人学生。

艾德尔森·弗朗索瓦(Aderson Francois)在华盛顿特区的霍华德大学教法律。他说,这起案子结束了美国的官方种族隔离。

弗朗索瓦说:“布朗一案基本结束了美国的种族隔离,如果我们说的是政府官方按种族划分的过程的话。”

但弗朗索瓦对该判决提出了批评,因为它并未设定种族隔离必须结束的时间限制。其结果就是,一直到二十世纪六十年代,美国南方的一些种族隔离学校都不服从最高法院的判决。即使是在今天,许多学校仍然有效地隔离。

2012年,加州大学的民权项目研究了学校的种族群体。该研究表明,和40年前相比,很多学校的种族融合更差。该研究称,社会和经济问题是部分原因。它还表示,一些法院案件削弱了废除种族隔离的执法。

这点并未让教育活动家珍妮特·泰勒(Jeanette Taylor)感到奇怪。她最近和其他活动家来到了华盛顿,敦促官员们采取行动,停止把更多资金投入到白人为主的学校,而不是少数族群的学校。

泰勒说:“所以我们今天来到这里,告诉他们要停止推行不好的政策。”

布朗就职于正义联盟之旅。他说基于种族的隔离仍然存在。他还批评最高法院最近判决密歇根州禁止公立大专院校在录取学生时考虑其种族。教育官员说,在有着类似禁令的一些州,非洲裔学生人数有所下降。

以上就是本期美国之音慢速英语教育报道的全部内容。我是杰瑞林·沃特森(Jerilyn Watson)。



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