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VOA慢速[教育]关于写作的建议

2014-11-18    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Education Report.

Today we continue our series of expert suggestions for academic writing.  Our guest is Jennifer Ahern-Dodson, assistant professor of the Practice in Writing Studies at Duke University in North Carolina.

Ms. Ahern-Dodson starts a conversation with both students and professors planning to write a paper or essay.  She asks about their earlier writing experiences. Were they negative or positive?

She advises that you are not alone if you have had problems with your writing.  She says everyone struggles with writing.

“Writing is hard.  All writers struggle at some point.  And even if writing has come easily for you, at some point in your work as a student, that  eventually you’re going to hit a roadblock.  And so part of what I like to get folks thinking about is -- besides writing’s hard for everybody – is to really take a moment to think about their past writing experiences.  And when the writing is going well, what was happening?  When the writing wasn’t going well, what was happening?”

She says most people’s negative writing experiences happened because a very specific formula is required for a paper including an exact length.

“And so they primarily focus on, and worry about, what the final product has to look like, like how many pages for a research essay?  Or if it is in the second or third language, you know, punctuation and grammar, like whether it gets communicated in the right language.

“And so focusing on the end makes it really hard to get started.”

Another problem can arise when the need to do well on a paper is extremely important.

 “…like a timed essay exam, or a college application essay, or a research paper that is at the end of the semester, and it’s tied to the entire grade for the class.  So worrying about what will happen if they don’t do well – get bad grades, don’t get into college -- creates, of course, significant anxiety.  And that can make it harder to get the writing done.”

Then she and the people she’s helping move to more positive projects.  She says usually when writing comes easily, the writers feel they have something important to say.

The teacher advises asking yourself questions.  What personal understanding of the subject can you bring to your paper?  Why is this subject important? For whom is it meaningful?  Who will be reading it?

“…Think about who your audience is, and what it is that you really want to say to them.  And what that can do is help you switch from the final product and what it can look like (to) really more on what you have to offer, your particular perspective.”

She says that is an important change for all writers.  

And that’s the VOA Learning English Education Report.  Coming soon: Jennifer Ahern-Dodson talks about doing research, sitting down to write and sharing your writing with others.

I’m Jeri Watson.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-09-18


这里是《美国之音》慢速英语教育报道。

今天我们继续关于学术写作的专家建议系列。这次的嘉宾是Jennifer Ahern-Dodson,她是北卡罗纳州杜克大学的写作实践研究张助理教授。

Ahern-Dodson和正准备写篇论文的师生们开始交流起来。她询问他们之前写作效果如何。

她讲到,如果你在写作上遇到什么问题的话,这并不是你一个所遇到的困难,每个人都面临着写作问题。

“写作是很困难,所有的作家在某些时候都有过写作上的苦恼,即使在你作为学生的时候,写作对于你来说很容易,但最终你也会遇到困难。因此我喜欢让人们去思考的部分就是,除去写作的困难之外,花些时间去想想自己过去的写作经验。当写作很顺利的时候,是什么样的情况?当写作遇到障碍时,发生了什么?”

她称大多数人的负面写作经历是因为某一篇文章所规定的特定格式,包括具体长度。

“因此他们关注和担心的问题是最终论文要达到什么要求,例如这篇文章要写多少页或者说是否需要用第二或者第三语言来写,还有诸如标点,语法之类的,是否要用适当的语言来表达。”

“所以太过关注最终成果从而导致很难开始。”

当写好一篇文章非常重要时,就会产生另一个问题。

“……就像一个定时的的写作考试,或者大学入学申请论文,或者期末的研究报告,它会和全年的分数紧密相连。所以大家就会担心如果写的不好会怎样,害怕会得低分,无法考上大学,这当然会使大家严重焦虑,从而会使得很难完成论文。”

然后她和大家转谈到了更积极的课题。她称,通常写作很容易时,往往作者觉得自己还有要点话说。

老师还建议大家自己思考问题,例如,哪些关于主题的个人见解可以写在文中?为什么有什么重要意义?会对谁有意义?谁会去读这篇文章?

“……你要考虑到自己的读者会是谁,你真正想对他们表达的是什么,这样就可以让你从对论文成文后的思考上转移到思考你所想要表达的特定观点上。”

她说道,这对于所有的作者来说都是一个重大的变化。

以上是本期的美国之音慢速英语教育报道。即将报道的是:Jennifer Ahern-Dodson谈怎么做研究,坐下来写作和与他人分享你的写作经验。

我是Jeri Watson。



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