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VOA慢速[健康报道]控制马达加斯加岛的瘟疫

2015-01-09    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.

For much of 2014, health officials around the world have been guarding against Ebola virus.

There is another disease that can cause as much attention and fear – the plague.

Last week, the World Health Organization reported on cases of plague in the island nation of Madagascar. WHO officials warned the disease could spread throughout the country.

Madagascar's health ministry reported in November that the plague has killed nearly 50 people. And it said over 130 people are thought to be infected.

Just the word plague alone calls up images of the Black Death hundreds of years ago. The Black Plague killed more than 25 million people in Medieval Europe.

Madagascar is far from that number.

But the World Health Organization reports that the plague could infect many people. So, the WHO is working with health officials in Madagascar to contain the outbreak.

The plague is not new to Madagascar. It seems to reappear in the country every year.

However, the WHO's Christian Lindmeier says the U.N. health agency is very concerned about this outbreak. He says the number of cases of plague appears to be higher than in recent years.

"Cases have been reported in 16 districts of seven regions. In Antananarivo, the capital and largest city in Madagascar, also two recorded cases have been identified, including one death."

Mr. Lindmeier says the disease could spread quickly because of the city's high population and the weakness of the health care system. Another problem is that the insects spreading the disease are becoming resistant to the chemical product designed to kill them.

The first case of the plague was identified on August 31. The patient died three days later. However, the health officials in Madagascar did not report the outbreak to the WHO until November 4.

Christian Lindmeier says measures for the control and prevention of plague are being put into effect in the affected areas. He says personal protective equipment, insecticides and antibiotics are being made available in those areas.

He says a WHO expert has gone to Madagascar to work with the health officials there. They plan to fully investigate the situation to see what more needs to be done to bring the disease under control.

"Plague can be a very severe disease in people with a case fatality ratio of 30 to 60 percent if left untreated. Plague is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, a zoonotic bacteria usually found in small animals and their fleas. People infected with plague usually develop flu-like symptoms after an incubation period of three to seven days."

Humans bitten by an infected flea usually develop a bubonic form of plague. It causes the swelling, or enlargement, of lymph nodes. If the bacteria reach the lungs, the patient develops pneumonia. The disease can spread from person to person through infected droplets spread by coughing.

Bubonic plague can be successfully treated with antibiotic drugs if caught early. But the WHO says pneumonic plague is one of the most deadly infectious diseases. It can kill patients within 24 hours after infection. To date, WHO says only two percent of reported cases are of the pneumonic form.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-12-3


这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。

2014年的大部分时间里,世界各地卫生组织官员都在抵抗埃博拉病毒。

现在有另外一种疾病需要引起关注和恐慌——瘟疫。

上周,世界卫生组织报道了在马达加斯加岛的瘟疫病情。WHO官员警告这种疾病可能在全国蔓延。

11月,马达加斯加岛的卫生部发布新闻称,瘟疫已经夺取了近50人的性命。据说估计有130多人遭到感染。

单单是瘟疫这个词就会让人们想起百年前发生的黑死病。中世纪时期的欧洲,黑死病夺取了大概2500万人的生命。

马达加斯加岛的死亡率还没到那个数字上。

但是世界卫生组织报道,瘟疫可能传染给很多人。所以,世界卫生组织与马达加斯加岛的卫生部官员合作控制疫情爆发。

该疫情对马达加斯加岛来说不是新鲜事了。似乎每年瘟疫都会侵袭该国。

然而,世界卫生组织的克里斯丁·林德梅尔说,联合国卫生组织非常关心疫情的爆发情况。他说疫情爆发的频率次数比最近几年都要高。

“报道称七个地区的16个片区已经爆发疫情。安塔那那利佛是马达加斯加岛的首都,同时也是马达加斯加岛的最大城市,已经确认两例瘟疫病例,其中一例已经死亡。”

林德梅尔先生说,疫情传染迅速,因为城市人口密集,而医疗保障系统薄弱。另外一个问题是虫子传播疾病,而这些虫子已经对杀虫剂产生抗体。

第一例病例的确诊日期是八月三十一号。病人三天后就死了。然而马达加斯加的卫生官员到11月4号才向世界卫生组织报告疫情的爆发。

克里斯丁·林德梅尔说在疫情受灾区已经采取了控制疫情,阻止疫情蔓延的措施。他说个人防护设备,杀虫剂还有抗生素都已经投入相关地区使用。

他说,世界卫生组织专家已经和卫生部官员一道,去马达加斯加共同配合工作。他们计划深入调查一下,确定接下来采取沈阳的措施来控制疫情。

“瘟疫是中非常严重的疾病,如果得不到及时治疗,会导致30%-60%的死亡率。瘟疫是有一种叫做鼠疫杆菌的细菌引起的,鼠疫杆菌是动物之间传染一种细菌。通常在小动物和他们身上的跳蚤中发现。人们感染上瘟疫后,病症表现就是3至7天潜伏期后的感冒症状。

人们被受感染的跳骚叮咬后,通常会发展成为腺鼠疫。他会导致肿胀,或者淋巴肿大。如果病菌进入肺部,病人会发展成为肺炎。该疾病可能通过咳嗽产生的飞沫,在人群中传染。

如果再患病早期,通过用抗生素药物能成功治愈腺鼠疫。但是世界卫生组织称肺炎型鼠疫是一种致命的传染病。感染后24小时内可能致命。当今,世界卫生组织报道中的疫情只有2%的病例是肺炎型鼠疫。



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