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VOA慢速[健康报道]绿色环保烹饪燃料

2015-01-23    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report.

The way we cook is important. In many countries, the two choices are natural gas or electric-powered stoves.

The World Health Organization warns that millions of people are dying every year from indoor air pollution.

Indoor air pollution results from the use of dangerous fuels and cook-stoves in the home. To help fight the problem, the WHO announced new guidelines aimed at reducing household pollutants.

WHO officials say nearly three billion people are unable to use clean fuels and technologies for cooking, heating and lighting. And they say more than seven million people die from exposure to indoor or outdoor air pollution each year. Of that number, the WHO says about 4.3 million people die from household air pollution given off by simple biomass and coal cook-stoves.

Most of the deaths are in developing countries.

The WHO’s plan of action for reducing indoor pollutants is based on new findings. These findings show that the use of toxic fuels in inefficient stoves, space heaters or lights is to blame for many of these deaths.

Carlos Dora is Coordinator in the WHO's Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. He says people should not use unprocessed coal and kerosene fuel indoors. He says opening a window or door to let out the harmful air will not correct the situation. It will only pollute the outdoors.

“You cannot expect that a bit of ventilation is going to get rid of this. It is really about very clean technologies and clean fuels. And, the fuel story has not been stressed enough so far in the global debate. So, that is the new thing. We should be going for clean fuels. We should be avoiding coal. We should be avoiding kerosene and we should be going for the solar, the LPG (liquified petroleum gas), the ethanol ... the solutions that we know exist that can address a big proportion of this issue.”

WHO officials say indoor pollution leads to early deaths from stroke, heart and lung disease, childhood pneumonia and lung cancer. Women and girls are the main victims.

The WHO says these diseases can often result from high levels of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide released by the burning of solid fuels. These fuels include wood, coal, animal waste, crop waste and charcoal.

The United Nations found that more than 95 percent of households in sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid fuels for cooking. It says huge populations in India, China and Latin American countries, such as Guatemala and Peru, also are at risk.

​Nigel Bruce is a professor of Public Health at the University of Liverpool. He says researchers are developing good cook-stoves and other equipment to burn fuels in a more efficient way.

“There are already multiple technologies available for use in clean fuels. There is really quite an effective and reasonably low-cost ethanol stove that is made by Dometic (a Sweden-based company) that is now being tested out .. it has been tested out in a number of African countries and we do report results from that in the guidelines. LPG cook is obviously widely available and efforts are under way to make those efficient. Another interesting development is electric induction stoves."

WHO experts note some new, safe and low-cost technologies that could help are already available. In India, you can buy an induction stove for about $8.00. And in Africa you can buy a solar lamp for less than $1.00.

But, this, the agency says, is just a start. It is urging developing countries to use cleaner fuels and increase access to cleaner and more modern cooking and heating appliances.

I’m Anna Matteo.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-12-10


这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道

烹饪的方式很重要。很多国家,有天然气和电炉两种选择。

世界卫生组织给出警告,每年有上百万的人死于室内空气污染。

室内空气污染来源于在家里使用危险染料和灶具。为了解决这个问题,世界卫生组织宣布了旨在减少家庭污染物的新准则。

世界卫生组织官员说,有将近30亿人不能用上清洁染料和技术做饭,取暖和照明。他们还表示每年超过7百万人死于室内外的空气污染,其中大约430玩的人死于生物燃料和煤炉释放出的室内空气污染。

大部分死者都在发展中国家。

世界卫生组织计划基于新发现的问题来减少室内污染。这些发现表明低效的炉灶使用有毒燃料,空间加热器或者一些灯具都是造成死亡的原因。

卡洛斯·多拉(Carlos Dora)是世界卫生组织公共卫生及健康问题环境和社会决定因素的协调员。他说,人们不应该在室内使用未经处理的煤或者煤油燃料。他说,打开窗户或者门,让有害气体溜出去不是正确的解决办法。这只会污染室外空气。

“你不能指望通风就能解决这个问题。这确实是关系到清洁技术和清洁染料的问题,并且染料一说在全球辩论中至今强调得还不够。因此这是一种新的说法。我们应该采用清洁染料,避免使用煤。我们应该采用太阳能,液化石油和乙醇等。这些我们知道的现有解决方案可能解决很大一部分问题。

世界卫生组织官员表示,室内污染会导致中风,心脏病和肺部疾病,儿童肺炎和肺癌。妇女儿童都是主要受害者。

世界卫生组织官员还表示,这些疾病通常来源于固体燃料燃烧时释放的高浓度细颗粒物和一氧化碳。这些燃烧物质包括木柴,煤炭,动物粪便,庄稼秸秆和木炭

联合国发现,在撒哈拉以南非洲地区超过95%的家庭依靠固体燃料做饭。他们还说,在人口众多的印度,中国和拉丁美洲国家,以及危地马拉和秘鲁也存在同样风险。

奈杰尔·布鲁斯(Nigel Bruce)是利物浦大学的公共健康教授。他说,研究人员在研发让燃料燃烧更有效的炉具和其他设备。

“已经有可用于清洁染料的多种可行技术。一种非常有效并且成本合理的瑞典多美达公司生产的乙醇炉现在也正在接受测试。它已经在在非洲一些过节经过测试,我们对此结果做出了报告。液化石油气做饭显然已经得到广泛应用,并且采取了多种措施使其搞笑。另外一种有趣的发明是电磁炉。”

世界卫生组织专家指出,一些可能有帮助的安全,低成本的新技术已经面市。在印度,你可以花8美元买到一个电磁炉。在非洲,你可以花不到1美元就买到一盏太阳能灯。

但是,世界卫生组织表示,这仅仅是一个开始。该机构正在督促发展中国家使用清洁能源,并且提供更多途径来获得更清洁,更现代的烹饪和取暖设备。



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