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VOA慢速英语[健康报道]爱吸烟的人也爱喝酒?

2015-12-24    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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 From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

 
Many people who drink alcohol also like to smoke cigarettes. Drinking and smoking seem to be closely linked. Some people might even say they go together hand-in-hand.
 
But this may be more than just a mixing of two fairly common activities.
 
New research has looked more closely at the relationship between cigarettes and alcohol. And the relationship is one of equal dependence. Smoking and drinking seem to feed on each other.
 
These are the exact words of Mahesh Thakkar. He is head of research in the Department of Neurology at the University of Missouri’s School of Medicine.
 
Thakkar explains that when a person drinks alcohol they get sleepy. He says a drug in cigarettes fights that sleepy feeling. That drug, nicotine, can be addictive; smokers need more cigarettes because of their body’s growing dependence on the drug.
 
So, if a person smokes, then he or she is much more likely to drink alcohol, and vice versa. Thakkar says, “They feed off one another."
 
Researchers already knew that people who use alcohol often smoke. In fact, earlier research shows that more than 85 percent of alcohol-dependent American adults also depend on nicotine.
 
Thakkar's earlier research showed that nicotine combined with alcohol stimulates what he calls the "reward center" of the brain. However, the new study shows a dependent relationship between the substances.
 
Thakkar says his team "found that nicotine weakens” the sleep-causing effects of alcohol. It does this by activating an area of the brain called the basal forebrain. According to the Psychology Definition website, that area is responsible for memory, learning and attention.
 
For this new experiment, Thakkar and his team used equipment that measures brain activity in rats. They injected the rats with both nicotine and alcohol, and then studied brain activity in the animals as they slept. The researchers found that nicotine goes through the basal forebrain and cancels out the sleep-causing effects of alcohol.
 
So, why is this new research important?
 
The World Health Organization says 7 million people die every year from alcohol and nicotine use.
 
Mahesh Thakker and his team identified why alcohol use and smoking are often linked. He says this knowledge may help people break their addictions to alcohol and nicotine.
 
The researchers published their findings in the Journal of Neurochemistry.
 
I’m Anna Matteo.
(文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2015-11-18)

这里是美国之音健康与生活方式报道。

许多爱酒人士也爱抽烟,似乎喝酒和抽烟关联甚密,一些人甚至说烟酒不分家。

但是这可能远远甚于两种相当普遍的活动的简单叠加。
 
最新研究更加密切关注了烟酒之间的关系,而两者间的关系是彼此依赖的,吸烟和喝酒看似相互促进。
 
这正是Mahesh Thakkar的原话,他是密苏里大学医学院神经内科的研究负责人。
 
Thakkar解释,人喝酒后易困,他称香烟中的某种药物能驱赶这种睡意,而这种药物即尼古丁,尼古丁能够让人上瘾,吸烟者需要吸更多的香烟,因为其身体逐渐开始依赖尼古丁。
 
所以,如果一个人抽烟,他或她会更可能喝酒,反之亦然。Thakkar说:“两者互相促进。”
 
研究人员早知道,喝酒人士大多经常抽烟,事实上,早期的研究显示,超过85%酗酒成瘾的美国成人也依赖尼古丁。
 
Thakkar早期的研究显示,尼古丁再加上酒精可以刺激他所谓的大脑“奖励中心”,但是,最新的研究显示两种物质间彼此间的依赖性。
 
Thakkar称他的研究小组发现,尼古丁通过刺激大脑被称为基底前脑削弱”酒精导致的易困影响。依据“心理学定义”网站的介绍,该区域掌管记忆、学习和注意力。
 
Thakkar及其研究小组在该项新实验中使用了测试小白鼠大脑活动的仪器,他们将尼古丁和酒精注射进小白鼠体内,然后当它们睡觉时研究其大脑活动,研究人员发现,尼古丁穿透基底前脑,阻碍了酒精导致的易困影响。
 
那么,为何新研究很重要呢?
 
世卫组织称每年有七百万人死于酒精和尼古丁的吸食。
 
Mahesh Thakker及其研究小组确认了喝酒和吸烟通常联系在一起的原因,他表示该知识点可能有助于人们戒烟戒酒。
 
研究人员将其研究结果发布于《精神化学》期刊。
 
我是Anna Matteo.


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