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VOA慢速英语[健康报道]你的意志力够强大吗?

2016-04-07    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Health & Lifestyle report.

Willpower is a mysterious force that helps us to control our actions and achieve our goals.We also call willpower determination, drive and self-control.

The American Psychological Association (APA) defines willpower this way:——Willpower is the ability to resist short-term temptations in order to meet long-term goals.——Willpower allows us to ignore unwanted thoughts, feelings or desires.——Willpower is a limited resource that you can use up.
 
That last part is important.The theory that our willpower is limited is where psychology experts are divided.
 
For many years in the world of psychology, the widely accepted theory has been that our willpower – our self-control – is limited.If we are not careful, we can use up our willpower before a task is completed or before a goal is reached.
 
Psychologists who believe that willpower is a limited resource say using up our willpower is the main reason some of us fail to achieve our goals.
 
However, in recent years, other psychologists have challenged this theory.A new theory says that the amount of our available willpower is affected by our attitudes about willpower.
 
But first, let’s go back to the 'limited supply' theory.
 
An experiment back in the 1990s formed the popular theory in psychology that your willpower is limited.The experiment is known as the Chocolate-and-Radish Experiment.
 
Researchers put 67 study subjects in a room that smelled of freshly baked chocolate cookies.
 
Sounds good, right?
 
Wrong.
 
Instead of warm, rich chocolate cookies, researchers gave one group radishes to eat – cold, bitter radishes.The other group of subjects ate the chocolate cookies.
 
Then researchers asked both groups to solve a difficult puzzle.
 
The group that ate the radishes gave up on the puzzle after 9 minutes.The group that ate chocolate cookies worked twice as long on figuring out the puzzle.
 
The researchers concluded that the group that resisted the chocolate cookies had used up their willpower.Willpower is like a muscle that can lose strength and tire.
 
Other experiments that support this theory have found that willpower is like a hungry child in need of a 'sugar fix.'When we use our willpower, it robs our brain of energy, or glucose.So, feeding the brain a little sugar when doing a difficult task helps you to fill up your willpower resource.
 
But a new theory contradicts the idea that willpower is limited and can be charged up with sugar.
 
Carol Dweck is a professor of psychology at Stanford University.In 2013 she and her team asked 87 college students in Germany, Switzerland and the United States to describe their beliefs on willpower.
 
Some said they believed willpower is a limited resource.Others said they believed willpower was plentiful and even increases the more it is used.
 
Dweck then asked the study subjects to complete a difficult mental task.This first task was followed by a second that required the subject to resist an impulse and use their willpower.
 
Dweck described the results in an interview with LiveScience.She said those who believed their willpower was limited grew tired after the first task.They performed poorly on the second task.But, if they received a sugary drink before the second task, they performed better.
 
Dweck also said that people who believed willpower is limited were always looking for signs that they were running out of willpower,or they thought they needed the sugar fix.
 
However, the study subjects who believed willpower was unlimited did not tire during the second task and they did not need a sugar boost.
 
Dweck said the results suggest that willpower is not in limited supply.Instead, it is people’s beliefs about willpower that shape their behavior.
 
She and her team published their findings in August of 2013 in the journal The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
 
But what do all these studies mean to you?
 
Regardless of what you believe, the American Psychological Association website has advice for people trying to achieve their goals.
 
——Avoid Temptations.If you believe that your willpower is limited, remove outside temptations.This way you will not waste your willpower.As the goes, 'out of sight, out of mind.'
 
——Make a Plan.For example, if you have to study over the weekend, set aside a certain period of time to get your work done.But also make time for fun, too.
 
——Think about your motivations.Are your goals your own or someone else’s?Studies and common sense suggest that people who pursue goals that are their own are more motivated to reach them.
 
——Focus on one goal at a time.Many push their willpower too much.They try to quit smoking, save money, lose weight and get a better job all at the same time.This may use up their willpower, if they believe in the 'limited supply' theory.Instead, focus on one goal at a time.
 
——Think you can!There is evidence to support that if you believe you can do it, you can.A little positive thinking goes a long way!
 
I’m Anna Matteo.
 
文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2016-2-17

这里是美国之音慢速英语健康和生活方式报道。
 
意志力是一种神秘的力量,帮助我们控制行动实现目标。此外,我们还称意志力为“决心”、“驱动力”以及“自我控制”。
 
美国心理学协会(APA)对意志力的定义如下:——意志力是为了实现长期目标抵制短期诱惑的能力;—— 意志力让人们忽略不利的思想、感情或者欲望;——意志力是可耗尽的有限资源。
 
最后一点非常重要。心理学专家就意志力有限的理论分歧较大。
 
多年来在心理学界人们广为接受的理论是,人们的意志力(即自我控制)是有限的。如果不够谨慎,完成一项任务或者达成一个目标之前就可能耗尽意志力。
 
坚持意志力有限观点的心理学家表示,耗尽意志力是未能达成目标的主要原因。
 
但是最近几年,很多其他心理学家开始质疑该理论。最新的理论表示,对待意志力的态度会影响到可用意志力的多少。
 
但先回头再看看意志力有限的理论。
 
在20世纪90年代一项实验中,形成了著名的心理学理论称意志力是有限的。该实验被称作是“巧克力和萝卜实验”。
 
研究人员将67个研究对象放置于充满新鲜出炉巧克力曲奇味道的屋中。
 
听起来很棒,对吧?
 
不是的。
 
研究人员并未让这组人员进食新鲜出炉、抹了很多巧克力的曲奇,而是又凉又苦的萝卜。另外一组则进食巧克力曲奇。
 
随后,研究人员让两组人员解决一个难题。
 
9分钟之后,进食萝卜的一组人员放弃了该难题。另外一组进食巧克力曲奇的人员则花费至少两倍长的时间解答难题。
 
研究人员总结道,抵制巧克力曲奇的那组人员已经耗尽了意志力。意志力就像是肌肉,会失去力量而疲惫。
 
支持该理论的其他实验发现意志力就像是需要用糖来哄的饥饿的孩子。耗尽意志力之后,耗费了大脑的能量或者葡萄糖。因此,从事艰难任务之前为大脑提供糖类有助于补充意志力。
 
但是新的理论反对意志力有限的观点,主张可以通过补充糖类来补充意志力。
 
Carol Dweck是斯坦福大学的一名心理学教授。2013年,Carol Dweck与其团队调查了德国、瑞士和美国87名大学生有关意志力的看法。
 
有的人认为意志力是有限的。其他人则表示意志力非常充足,甚至认为用的越多,意志力增长的越多。
 
随后,Dweck让这些研究对象完成一项较难的脑力任务。完成第一项任务之后,进行第二项任务,第二项任务要求研究对象用意志力抵制一种冲动。
 
Dweck接受《生活科学》采访时对结果进行了描述。她表示那些认为意志力有限的人们完成第一项任务之后会非常疲惫。进行第二项任务时,表现不佳。但如果进行第二项任务之前喝了含糖饮料,就会表现较好。
 
Dweck表示那些认为意志力有限的人们表示他们经常寻找意志力耗尽的迹象,或者他们认为自己需要补充糖分。
 
但那些认为意志力并非有限的人们在进行第二次任务时并不疲惫,也不需要补充糖分。
 
Dweck表示该结果表示意志力并非有限资源。相反,人们有关意志力的态度影响了人的行为。
 
2013年8月,Dweck和团队将研究发现发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。
 
但这些研究对你来说意味着什么呢?
 
不管你是何种观点,美国心理学协会网站上对那些尝试实现自己目标的人提供了建议。
 
——避开诱惑。如果你觉得自己的意志力有限,那么避开外部诱惑。这样就可以不浪费意志力。所谓“眼不见,心为净”。
 
—— 制定计划。比如,如果周末不得不学习,规定在特定时间内完成作业。但也要留出玩耍的时间。
 
——铭记动力。目标是你自己的目标还是别人的目标?研究以及常识表明追求自己目标的人更有实现目标的动力。
 
——一次专注一个目标。很多人滥用意志力。他们总是希望同时戒烟、省钱、减肥或者找一份好工作。如果他们支持意志力有限理论,这么做可能就会耗尽意志力。因此一次性只能专注一个目标。
 
—— 坚信你能!有证据表明,如果你认为你可以,你就真的可以。一点点积极的思想可能会发挥很大的作用。
 
Anna Matteo为您报道。


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