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VOA慢速[时事]奥巴马拒绝向伊拉克派遣地面军队

2014-08-29    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is In The News.

Islamic militants have been seizing territory in Iraq this week. A group called the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant, or ISIL, has already captured most of the country's north.

On Tuesday, ISIL fighters took control of Mosul, Iraq's second largest city. A day later, the group captured Tikrit, the hometown of former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. Officials said militants captured two towns in the eastern province of Diyala on Thursday.

A spokesman for the ISIL said its supporters will push into Baghdad, the capital, and on to the Shi'ite Muslim holy city of Karbala. The group says it is seeking to establish an Islamic form of government.

Separately, the security forces of Iraq's Kurdish north took control of an airbase and other positions in oil-rich Kirkuk. The security forces acted after Iraqi government troops left the posts.

Iraqi government forces have seemingly been powerless to stop the militants. To the west of Mosul, the fighters have taken control of parts of eastern Syria.

The recent developments are seen as cancelling 10 years of work by the United States. The U.S. has spent an estimated $25 billion on training and equipping the Iraqi military since 2003, when the war in Iraq began.

President Barack Obama says he is considering a "range of options" in deciding how to deal with the crisis. He spoke on Thursday to reporters at the White House.

"I don't rule out anything because we do have a stake in making sure that these jihadists are not getting a permanent foothold in either Iraq or Syria for that matter."

But his choices are limited. Just two and a half years ago, Mr. Obama brought home the last of the U.S. ground troops in Iraq. And the president has rejected calls to send troops back to the country.

One idea is to use drone aircraft to target the ISIL fighters. The U.S. has used drones to attack suspected militants in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Yemen and Somalia. Drone strikes are often effective in killing small numbers of people. But they are not effective against an army and could endanger civilians.

Stephen Zunes is a Middle East expert at the University of San Francisco.

"This is not a matter of getting a few bad guys and their various hideaways. We're talking about a rebellion that has thousands of armed men that control a very large swath of territory, including some major urban areas."

Another option for the U.S. is to provide more training, weapons and intelligence to the Iraqi army. Andreas Krieg is with King's College London.

"The Iraqi military has, despite all the billions we invested in security sector reform, not really performed in the way we want it to perform. But the Iraqis will obviously be the first line of defense against [ISIL], so they will need to be propped up in one way or another."

Few experts believe the militants can capture the heavily guarded city of Baghdad. But Andreas Krieg said it is important to stop the ISIL before it can set up an Islamic state in the heart of the Middle East.

"They don't have the fighting force to actually administer the vast territory that they have gained. So I think because they are weak right now, if we act quickly, I think something can be done. But once they consolidate their power over months to come, I think we will face a much bigger problem that we will not be able to contain."

And that's In the News from VOA Learning English. I'm Steve Ember.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-06-21


这里是美国之音慢速英语听力时事报道.

伊斯兰武装分子本周在伊拉克攻城略池。一个名为伊拉克与黎凡特伊斯兰教国(简称ISIL)的组织已经占领了该国北部的大部分地区。

周二的时候,ISIL武装分子控制了摩尔苏,该城市微伊拉克第二大城市。第二天占领了伊拉克的前总统萨达姆·侯赛因的故乡提克里特。伊拉克官员称,武装分子周四占领了东部迪亚拉省的两个城镇。

ISIL的发言人表示,其支持人将进军首都巴格达,并剑指什叶派穆斯林圣城卡尔巴拉。该组织声称,他们正谋求建立一个伊斯兰形式的政府。
 
另外一方面,伊拉克库尔德北部的安全部队控制了一个空军基地,以及盛产石油的基尔库克的其它地区。该安全部队在伊拉克政府军逃离岗位后采取了行动。

伊拉克政府军队似乎物理组织这些武装分子。在摩苏尔以西,武装分子已经控制了叙利亚东部的部分地区。

近来事情的发展被视为浪费了美国十年来的心血。从2003年伊拉克战争开始以来,美国已经花费了250亿美元在伊拉克军队训练和装备上。

总统奥巴马表示,他在考虑一个一系列措施来解决这些危机。周四他在白宫对记者发话。

“我不排除任何可能,因为确保这些圣战主义分子无法在伊拉克和叙利亚建立永久基地对我们利益攸关。”

但是他的选择非常有限。在两年半以前,奥巴马撤回了伊拉克战场上的最后一个美国军队。同时,总统拒绝派重兵返回伊拉克战场。

有一个办法是使用无人飞机攻击ISIL武装分子。没过曾经在巴基斯坦,阿富汗,也门和索马里,使用无人机攻击疑似武装分子。无人飞机消灭少量人时,往往有效,但在对抗一支军队效果不明显,而且还可能危及平民。

Stephen Zunes是旧金山大学的中东问题专家。

“这并不是抓住几个坏人,找出它们的藏身之处。我们说的是一支有数千人的武装分子,控制了包括中药城区在内的大片领土的叛军。”

美国另外一种选择是为伊拉克军队提供训练,武器和情报。Andreas Krieg就职于伦敦大学的国王学院。

“虽然我们投入了数十亿美元用于伊拉克安全领域改革,伊拉克军队也未曾达到我们所预料的那样。但是伊拉克人对抗ISIL的第一道防线是明显的,所以他们必须以某种方式获得支持。”

少有专家相信武装分子可以战区重地巴格达。但是Andreas Krieg说,在ISIL于中东心脏地带建立一个伊斯兰国家之前,可以将其阻止,这是非常重要的。

“他们不具备实际管理已被他们占领的大片领土的战斗力。所以我想,因为他们现在还很弱,如果我们迅速采取行动,我认为有些事可以成功。但是一旦他们在未来数月巩固了自己的权利,我人们我们就会面临一个我们自己都不能控制的更大麻烦。”

这就是这一期的美国慢速之音时事报道,我是Steve Ember。



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