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VOA慢速英语[词汇典故]说说你的敌人

2015-11-06    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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Hello and welcome to the Voice of American Learning English program Words and Their Stories.

Do you have an enemy? Hopefully, you don’t. An enemy is someone who hates you and you hate them back. An enemy threatens you, attacks you or tries to harm you.

In some languages, there are different words for a personal enemy versus an enemy of war, political enemy or enemy of the state.

In English, however, they are all called the same - enemies.

We do have other words to describe an enemy. Adversary, foe and opponent are the most common.

However, if you do have enemies, I have some advice for you.

“Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.” Many believe the Chinese military genius, Sun Tzu, wrote something like this in his book The Art of War. Others say Machiavelli wrote this sentence in The Prince.

We may not know for sure who said it first. But many know who said this line in the movie The Godfather II. Gangster boss Michael Corleone advises a member of his crime “family” on how to deal with an enemy who is causing trouble.

“My father taught me many things here. He taught me in this room. He taught me, ‘Keep your friends close but your enemies closer.’”

Scene from "The Godfather II"

Here is another piece of advice, “An enemy of my enemy is my friend.”

Let’s say you have two enemies who also hate each other. If you are smart, you may be able to use their hatred of each other to get what you want.

Let’s say you don’t have a formal enemy. But what if you have a friend who treats you badly? People around you might say, “With a friend like that who needs enemies?” This expression means that if a friend treats you badly, they behave as an enemy. It also means you should get another friend.

We are supposed to hate our enemies. But when something is so bad, so terrible, we often say, “I wouldn't wish that on my worst enemy.” For example, “I was so sick last weekend! I wouldn’t wish that flu on my worst enemy.”

Public Enemy No. 1 is a status given to the worst criminals in the United States. During the Great Depression, John Dillinger was named Public Enemy No. 1. He was a killer, bank robber and the most feared gangster in the U.S. A gangster works in a group of people, like a network, or system.

Throughout the years several artists have borrowed this expression.

In 2009, Johnny Depp plays the famous gangster John Dillinger in the film titled Public Enemies.

An earlier film made in 1931 titled The Public Enemy is also a gangster film starring James Cagney.

Public Enemy is also a famous hip hop group that came out of Long Island, New York in the 1980s.

If you have many enemies, you may have to rank them in order of importance. Your archenemy is your main enemy. For example, “The two politicians were archenemies.”

A great word that means the same as your archenemy is nemesis. A nemesis is an opponent that is very difficult to defeat. Your nemesis is always looking to destroy you.

Sometimes you don’t need an enemy. Some people fail on their own. These types of people sometimes do not realize they are making things hard for themselves – that they are their own worst enemy.

So, if you know someone like this, you can say to them, “Life is hard enough. Don’t be your own worst enemy.”

I’m Anna Matteo.

文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2015-10-04


你好,欢迎收听美国之音慢速英语词汇典故。

你有敌人么?希望你没有。敌人的意思就是你讨厌他,他也讨厌你。敌人会威胁你,攻击你,或者试图伤害你。

在一些语言中,个人敌人和战场上的敌人,政局中的敌人,以及国家中的敌人有所不同。

然而,在英语中,他们把这些都称之为敌人。

我们有其他词语来描述敌人。最常见的就是Adversary,foe和Opponent。

不过,如果你有敌人,那么我有几点建议给你。

“密切关注你的朋友,更要密切关注你的敌人。”很多人都相信中国伟大的军事家孙膑。在《孙子兵法》中也写有类似的说法。还有人说马基雅维利在《君主论》中也写过类似的话。

我们也不清楚是谁最先说的这句话。但很多多人都知道在电影《教父2》中,黑帮老大迈克尔·可莱昂(Michael Corleone)给他的犯罪家族中的一民成员提建议,如何处理引起麻烦的敌人。

“我爸爸在这间房子里教会了我很多事。他教会了我,‘密切关注你的朋友,更要密切关注你的敌人。’”

场景来源于《教父2》

这里有一条忠告:“敌人的敌人就是我的朋友。”

我们说的是,你有两个敌人,但这两个敌人相互讨厌彼此。如果你是聪明人,你可以利用他们讨厌彼此的情况,来获得自己所想要的东西。

我们来说说你没有一个正式敌人的情况。但如果你有个一对你不好的朋友呢?你周围的人可能说:“有那样一个朋友,要敌人来干嘛?”这个短语表达的意思是,如果一个朋友对你很不好,他们就像你的敌人。这样意味着你应该换个朋友了。

我们应该讨厌自己的敌人。但是,发生不好的事,糟糕的事,我们经常会说:“就算是我最大的敌人,我也不希望他怎么样。”比如,“我上周生重病!我不希望自己最大的敌人也感冒。”
 
头号全民公敌享有美国最坏的犯罪地位。在经济大萧条时代,约翰·迪林格(John Dillinger)被称为头号全民公敌。他是一个杀手,银行抢劫犯,还是美国最可怕的黑帮分子。黑帮分子团体作案,就想是一个网络和系统一样。
 
这些年来,有一些艺术家借用了这种说法。

2009年,约翰尼·德普(Jonny Depp)在《全民公敌》的电影中扮演了头号黑帮分子约翰·迪格林(John Dillinger)

1931年更早的一部电影名为《全民公敌》,也是一个黑帮分子的电影,由詹姆斯·卡格尼(James Cagney)主演。

《头号公敌》来源上世界80年代,从纽约的长岛走出来的一个著名嘻哈组合的名字。

如果你有很多敌人,你可能需要根据他们的重要性进行排名。你的死敌(archenemy)是你主要的敌人。比如,“这两位政治家是死敌。”

和死敌有着类似意思的另外一个单词是克星(nemesisi)。克星是指非常难以击败你的对手,你的克星总是在找机会摧毁你。
 
有时,你不需要敌人。人们会败给自己。这类型的人有时没意识到他们把事情弄得更加复杂,他们就是自己最大的敌人。

所以如果你认识这样的人,你可以对他们说:“生活已经如此艰难,不要自己为难自己。”



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