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VOA慢速英语[词汇典故]关于everything的一切

2016-04-22    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is Words and Their Stories.

Today let's talk about ... everything.

American English has many ways to talk about everything under the sun.

A drawing from Adolf Wolfli's work "From the Cradle to the Grave"
Cradle to grave means an entire life cycle. A cradle is a bed for very young babies. And a grave is a burial place. So from cradle to grave means from birth to death.

It could be used to describe something that happens over the course of a person's life. For example, "I know a man who lived in the same country village his entire life -- from cradle to grave." That is a literal use of the expression.

This expression is often used in business, meaning the entire life cycle of a product or process.

Here is an example:

"Marcia is responsible for the life of this product from beginning to end."

"In other words, she's in charge from cradle to grave."

"Correct. Check with her before changing anything."

Another less common way to say cradle to grave is womb to tomb. But that one rhymes.

If you like food expressions, you can use soup to nuts, or from beginning to end. A dinner may start with soup and end with nuts.

For example, you could say, "He explained the process to us from soup to nuts ... from beginning to end."

Everything from A to Z uses the alphabet to give a range of everything. It describes content more than process. It means that nothing important was left out.

For example, "The rescue training covered everything from A to Z. The instructors taught everything you need to know for a successful rescue."

Everything but the kitchen sink is an expression that means a person included a lot of stuff – maybe too much stuff.

Let's say my friend is going camping for the weekend. And he packs too many things -- things he won't possibly need, like an iron, a toaster and a television. I could say, "He prepared for a weekend of camping and packed everything but the kitchen sink!"

We have many expressions that simply use the word "whole" to make fun phrases that mean "everything." For example, we have the whole ball of wax. When you say the whole ball of wax, you mean everything!

This expression may have come from a practice in the 1600s, where land was distributed in a sort of lottery. The amount of each portion of land was concealed in a ball of wax and then drawn from a hat. But no one knows for sure if this is the origin.

The origin of the whole nine yards is even more mysterious. It could come from the military, sports or even Scottish dress for men.

If you like to use expressions with known origins, use the whole enchilada. An enchilada is a Mexican dish. Vegetables or meat fill a tortilla, and is topped with a sauce. The whole enchilada means the entirety of something, especially something impressive or outstanding.

For example, "He has a job with money, respect, and personal satisfaction -- the whole enchilada!"

The word "shebang" is also used this way. In fact, people used the whole shebang without knowing what a shebang actually is. Word historians do not agree on where "shebang" comes from either. One of the first recorded use of the whole shebang, meaning everything, is in the late 1800s.

If you like expressions that are fun to say, use the whole kit and caboodle.

And that brings us to the end of this Words and Their Stories.

Let us know what you think of the show -- the whole show -- the whole kit and caboodle in the Comments Section. Or try using the expressions you have learned in this program.

I'm Anna Matteo.

"Now that you got a whole enchilada ..."


这里是美国之音慢速英语词汇典故。

今天我们来谈论一下“everything”。

美式英语有很多种方法谈论森罗万象(everything under the sun)。

浮生瞬息(Cradle to grave)是表示整个人生。摇篮是每个婴儿的床。坟墓是埋葬的地方。所以浮生瞬息表示从生到死。

这个短语可以用来形容人一生中发生的事。比如,“我知道有人一生都生活在同样一个地方——从生到死。”这是一种书面表达。

这个短语经常用在商业中,表示一个产品的生命周期或者过程。

举个例子:

“玛西亚负责生命体的生死。”

“换句话说,她掌管生死。”

“没错,在任何事情改变之前与她确认。”

另外一种不太常用的表示浮生瞬息的短语是子宫到墓碑(womb to tomb)但是比较押韵。

如果你熟悉食物的表达,你可以用一应俱全(soup to nuts),或者从头到尾(from beginning to end)。一顿饭最先从汤开始喝,最后吃杏仁。

比如,你可以说,“他给我们完整解释了整个过程。”

从头至尾(Everything from A to Z)用字母表给出了每件事顺序。这是用来强调内容而不是过程。这意味着没有漏掉任何。

比如,“此次营救训练包含所有项目。指导员会交给你成功营救的所有知识。”

Everything but the kitchen sink 表示一个人带了很多东西——这些东西可能是没用的。

这样来说,我朋友周末将去露营。他带了很多东西——这些东西他可能都用不上,比如熨斗,面包机和电视机。我会说,“他带了周末露营要用的所有东西,但是大部分东西是没用的。”

我们有很多种表达,但是最简单一种表达就是“全部(whole)”来表达“每件事(everything)”比如,我们东西都已经齐了(the whole ball of wax)。当你说the whole ball of wax,就是说你拥有了一切。“

这种表达可能来源与17世纪,土地分配还是随机性质。每一块土地的分配无人知晓具体情况最后却会公布于众。但是没人能确定这就是来源。

十全十美(the whole nine yards)的来源更神秘。可能来源于军队,运动,甚至是苏格兰的裙子。

如果你喜欢可靠来源的表达,就用全部过程(the whole enchilada)。玉米卷是墨西哥菜。用蔬菜或肉加上玉米粉烹饪,最后再在玉米卷表面加上调料。整个玉米卷就表明整个事件,特别是一些杰出的事情。

举个例子,“他的工作给他带来金钱,尊重和自我满足——一切都拥有了。”

单词“sheband”也是这种用途。事实上,人们用“整个事件(the whole shebang)并不知道实际上就是“shebang”的意思。世界历史学家不同意“shebang”的来源。第一个记录使用“the whole shebang”表示所有事情,是19世纪末开始使用的。

这一期的词汇典故到此结束。

让我们来回顾一下这期节目学到了什么——所有的东西都在评论部分(whole kit and caboodle)。多多使用你在节目中学到的短语。

我是Anna Matteo

现在你掌握了全部……



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