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VOA慢速英语[科学报道]铲屎官!你知道汪星人是如何喝水的吗?

2016-03-16    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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From VOA Learning English, this is the Science Report.

Why is it that when dogs drink, water seems to go everywhere?

 
When my dog drinks from her bowl, there is no question, water will end up on the floor. It looks like a sloppy, unorganized way to get a good drink of water.
 
Researchers at Virginia Tech University have been studying how dogs drink. They say dogs know exactly what they are doing. The animals are actually making precise movements at a high speed. This helps them get the fluid they need when they are thirsty.
 
It turns out that neither dogs, nor cats, have a full set of cheeks. This means they cannot create suction to drink, like humans or elephants and horses.
 
Dogs lap, or take up, the water with their tongues curled backward. As they lap, they move their tongues very quickly to build up momentum. That forces the water into a column and up into their mouths.
 
The Virginia Tech researchers filmed 19 dogs of different sizes and breeds as they drank water. They created different laboratory models to measure tongue motion, and the amounts of water taken in.
 
Using the data from these experiments, the researchers were able to make a model that shows how a dog drinks water.
 
The researchers said that since the mouths of dogs and cats are structured nearly the same way, they thought they would drink water the same way, too.
 
But here is a surprise. The studies showed each family of animals has its own special drinking method.
 
“We know cats and dogs are quite different in terms of behavior and character,” said Sunghwan “Sunny” Jung, a study author and an associate professor of biomedical engineering and mechanics at Virginia Tech.
 
“But before we did fundamental studies of how these animals drink fluids, our guess was dogs and cats drink about the same way. Instead we found out that dogs drink quite differently than cats,” he said.
 
What is the difference?
 
Dogs must quickly move their tongues down into the water using momentum to bring the water up and into their mouths. Cats don't bend their tongues to drink like dogs. Cats use less momentum and a more gentle action. They just skim, or barely touch, the surface of the water to drink it.
 
“Cats tend be viewed as neater, dogs are messier, but dogs really have to accelerate their tongues” to make good use of the way the fluid column works, said researcher Sean Gart, a Virginia Tech graduate student.
 
Their findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
 
I’m Anne Ball.
(文本来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2016-01-26)

这里是美国之音慢速英语科学报道。

为什么狗喝水总会弄得到处是水?

 
我家的狗狗从碗里喝水时,毫无疑问,最后总是将水洒在地板上,看起来不能好好喝水,喝得很邋遢无条理。
 
弗吉尼亚理工大学的研究人员一直在研究狗狗如何喝水,他们称狗狗很清楚自己的所作所为。事实上,这类动物可以快速地做出精确的动作,有助于它们口渴时,喝到所需的水。
 
原来,无论是汪星人还是喵星人都没有完整的脸颊。这意味着它们无法像人类或大象和马一样吮吸饮水。
 
狗狗通过向后卷舌,往嘴里送水。当它们卷舌时,快速移动舌头而累积成动量,如此形成水柱,再送进嘴里。
 
弗吉尼亚理工大学的研究人员拍摄了19只不同体型和不同品种的狗喝水的场景。他们建造不同的实验模型测量舌头的运动及进水量。
 
由这些实验得出的数据,研究人员制作了显示狗喝水方式的模型。
 
研究人员称,既然狗和猫的嘴巴结构基本一致,他们以为其喝水的方式也会相同。
 
但是,结果出乎意料,研究显示每种动物有自己独特的喝水方式。
 
Sunghwan “Sunny” Jung 说:“我们知道猫和狗的举止和性格迥异。”他是弗吉尼亚理工大学生物医学工程和力学工程的研究报告作者兼副教授。
 
他说:“我们进行关于这些动物如何饮水的基础研究之前,猜想狗和猫的喝水方式相同,但是我们反而发现,狗和猫的喝水方式大相径庭。”
 
那么,有什么区别呢?
 
狗狗必须将舌头快速深入水里,通过动量将水卷起送入嘴里;而猫不需要像狗一样弯曲舌头,它们通过较小的动量,采取更轻柔的行动:只是舔一下水的表面喝水。
 
弗吉尼亚理工大学研究生研究人员Sean Gart说: “通常认为猫是‘洁癖者’,狗是‘邋遢大王’,但是狗真的不得不加速卷舌,从而好好利用水柱饮水。”
 
他们的该发现发表于《美国国家科学院院刊》上。
 
我是Anne Ball。


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