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经济学人:我的是我的,你的也是我的

2014-01-15    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Business 商业

Expropriation in Zimbabwe津巴布韦的征没政策

Your mine is mine我的是我的,你的也是我的

A new plan to wreck one of Africa's unluckiest countries
一个将摧毁非洲最不幸国家之一的新计划

A DECADE ago Robert Mugabe's regime seized most of Zimbabwe's white-owned commercial farms. The president promised to give the land to the landless, but instead gave much of it to his wealthy cronies. The country's largest industry was wrecked, creating deadly food shortages.
十年前罗伯特?穆加比的政权夺去了大部分津巴布韦白人所拥有的商业农田。总统曾承诺将土地分给没有土地的人,然而却把大量的土地送给了他富裕的密友。该国最大的产业就此被摧毁,造就了严重的食物短缺。

Now for the encore. In 2007 a law was passed obliging all white- and foreign-owned companies to "cede" a 51% stake to black Zimbabweans. Despite Mr Mugabe's record, many firms ignored the threat. That was a mistake.
现在又到了悲剧重演的时刻。2007年通过了一部法律,要求所有白人以及外资公司必须将自己51%的股筹割让给津巴布韦黑人。尽管有穆加比的纪录在前,许多公司还是忽视了威胁。而这就是一个错误。

Saviour Kasukuwere, Mr Mugabe's indigenisation minister, has now sent an ultimatum to a dozen foreign-owned groups. Those that do not comply may lose their assets and operating licences. Their directors may be jailed. The victims include six miners, notably Rio Tinto's Murowa Diamonds and Impala Platinum's Zimplats; two banks, Standard Chartered and Barclays; and three manufacturers, British American Tobacco, Nestlé and Cargill Zimbabwe. The deadline for submitting compliance plans was the end of August; for implementing them, it is the end of September.
穆加比的本地化部长萨维尔?卡苏库维尔现已向十几个外资集团发出了最后通牒。那些不顺从的公司或会失去资产以及执业许可。它们的理事或会入狱。受害人包括了六家矿主,值得一提的有力拓的Murowa钻石和英帕拉铂金的Zimplats;两家银行,渣打和巴克莱;以及三家制造商,英美烟草、雀巢以及嘉吉津巴布韦。递交服从计划的截止日期是八月底;而将它们贯彻执行,则要在九月底之前。

Mr Kasukuwere, a rising political star, clearly wishes to appear tough. The law allows firms to perform good works in lieu of surrendering equity, but Mr Kasukuwere will have none of this. He also rejects an idea, floated by Zimplats, that firms could sell their shares to black Zimbabweans by listing them on the stock exchange. Instead, he wants them to give a 51% stake to a sovereign-wealth fund, with no guarantee of any compensation. All mines worth more than $1 are affected. "The minerals…already belong to us," smiles Mr Kasukuwere, "so why should we pay?"
卡苏库维尔,一位冉冉升起的政治明星,明显试图表现强硬姿态。法律允许公司通过做善事来替代放弃股票,但是卡苏库维尔不会采取其中任何一种方式。他还反对由Zimplats提出的一个主意,该主意提议商家可以在证券交易所上市,将股份出售给津巴布韦黑人。卡苏库维尔希望商家将51%的股筹投入主权财富基金,但不承诺给予商家任何补偿。任何价值超过一美元的矿场都受到影响。"矿产……早已是我们的,"卡苏库维尔露出微笑,"所以我们凭什么还要付钱?"

David Brown, the boss of Impala Platinum, says he is "confident that the 51% will not happen" and that a "more appropriate level of ownership" will ultimately be agreed. Otherwise, foreign investment in Zimbabwe will drop off a cliff and sink beneath the waves.
英帕拉铂金的老板大卫?布朗说他"有信心那51%的要求不会发生"并且一个"更合适的所有权标准"将最终获得同意。否则,外国在津巴布韦的投资将落入万劫不复的深渊。

Some companies are considering suing Mr Kasukuwere for exceeding his legal powers. A parliamentary committee dominated by Mr Mugabe's opponents says that he has. But relying on the rule of law in Zimbabwe is like asking a crocodile not to eat you. As an industry expert furiously puts it: "This is pure plunder—just like the farms."
有些公司在考虑控诉卡苏库维尔过分行使了他的法律权力。一个由穆加比的对手主导的议会委员会声称他已经这样做了。然而依靠津巴布韦的法律条文就像央求一条鳄鱼不要吃掉你一样。正如一个产业专家愤懑地指出的那样:"这是赤裸裸的抢劫——就像对那些农田一样。"



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