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经济学人双语版:艾滋病的历史 英雄与狗熊

2015-01-19    来源:网络    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

经济学人:艾滋病的历史 英雄与狗熊

Science and technology科学技术

The history of AIDS
艾滋病的历史

Heroes and villains
英雄与狗熊

The story of AIDS involves many larger-than-life characters, good and bad
艾滋病的故事涉及一些富有英雄色彩的人物,有好,也有坏。

ANNIVERSARIES are times for reflection, and this one should be no exception, for the 30-year history of AIDS is a mirror in which humanity can examine itself.
人们往往在纪念日反思,这次也会不例外:艾滋病30年的历史是一面能使人类自我审视的镜子。

From questionable scientists to philanthropic billionaires, people's actions against AIDS, and reactions to it, have shown up the best and worst that humans have to offer.
从被人质疑的科学家到仁慈的亿万富翁,人们与艾滋病抗争行动,以及对它的反应,已揭露出了人类所表现出来的善与恶。

Such dualism was there from the beginning, in the question of who discovered the AIDS-causing virus.
这种二重性从一开始便存在,就在谁发现了艾滋病致病病毒问题上。

There were two claimants.
有两个自认有功者:

One, Robert Gallo, is American. The other, Luc Montagnier, is French.
一位是美国的罗伯特盖洛;另外一位是法国的吕克.蒙塔尼。

Dr Gallo called his discovery HTLV-3.
盖洛博士称他发现HTLV-3病毒。

Dr Montagnier called his LAV.
蒙塔尼博士称他发现LAV病毒。

They were in fact the same thing.
HTLV-3病毒和LAV病毒实际上是相同的东西。

It turned out, however, that Dr Gallo's virus had come from Dr Montagnier's laboratory.
然而,结果证明,盖洛博士的病毒是源于蒙塔尼博士博士的实验室。

It was never conclusively proved how, though a contaminated sample may have been to blame.
但是从来没有确凿地证据证明病毒怎样从蒙塔尼博士博士的实验室传播开来,虽然可能追究于受污染的实验样本。

And Dr Gallo was exonerated of any wrongdoing by an official investigation and is universally recognized to have done important work on AIDS.
经过正式调查,盖洛博士摆脱了一切不道德行为的罪名,并被普遍认为他在艾滋病方面做出重大贡献。

But only Dr Montagnier won the Nobel prize—eloquent testimony to some people's opinion of the whole affair.
但是,蒙塔尼博士获得诺贝尔奖是对整件事某些看法的最有说服力的证据。

Another source of conflict was whether HIV, as the virus eventually came to be known, was truly the cause of AIDS.
另一个冲突的源头在于现在广为人知的HIV病毒是否是引起艾滋病真正成因。

At the beginning of the epidemic, that might have been debatable.
在艾滋病的刚刚开始盛行时,这可能性是富有争议的。

Perhaps HIV was merely a passenger that took advantage of an immune system weakened by another cause?
也许HIV病毒仅仅个过客,而造成免疫系统衰弱的真凶另有其人?

One once-respected scientist, Peter Duesberg, who did early research on viral causes of cancer, would not drop the idea.
曾备受尊重的从事滤过性毒菌引起的癌症的早期研究的科学家彼得?迪斯贝格没有终止这想法。

He insisted—and still insists—that the weakening of the immune system characteristic of AIDS is caused by drug-taking, and that HIV is, indeed, a passenger.
他坚持认为—现在仍然坚持—,认为艾滋病的特征免疫系统的衰弱是由吸毒引起的,因而HIV病毒确实只是个过客。

This theory would not have mattered much except that Thabo Mbeki, a former president of South Africa, latched on to it.
但南非前总统塔博?姆贝基对这一观点感兴趣,就会引起重大影响。

Since South Africa has the world's largest number of AIDS cases, and one of its highest infection rates, this was bad news,
由于南非拥有全世界最多的艾滋病患者而且是其最高感染率国家之一,这个前总统对这种理论一感了兴趣,可糟了。

as was Mr. Mbeki's health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who was appointed mainly because she agreed with him, and recommended beetroot and garlic as treatment for the disease.
他居然还任命曼托查巴拉拉-姆西曼为卫生部长,只是因为这位认同这位前总统的观点,而且那部长还建议用建议用甜菜根和大蒜来治疗艾滋病。

Only with the election of Jacob Zuma, who has himself been publicly tested for HIV, did South Africa return to sensible anti-AIDS policies.
直到雅各布?祖玛当选,亲身公开对HIV病毒进行测试,南非在反艾滋病政策才重返理智。

Among the heroes, Bill Gates looms large.
在众多英雄好汉之中,比尔盖茨赫然耸现。

The foundation into which he poured much of his Microsoft fortune took AIDS seriously from the beginning, forming a particularly fruitful partnership with the government of Botswana, one of the worst-affected countries.
他用很大一部分微软的财富的捐资建立的基金会从源头治理艾滋病,特别从富有伙伴关系的受灾最严重国家之一的博茨瓦纳政府开始。

And Nelson Mandela, the heroes’ hero, also cleaved eventually to the path of righteousness, even while admitting he had not done enough to combat AIDS during his own presidency of South Africa.
而纳尔逊?曼德拉也是英雄中的英雄,在正义的路径上披荆斩棘地前进,即使他承认在他当总统时在与艾滋病抗战上留有余力。

Mr. Gates and Mr. Mandela are easy to admire.
盖茨先生和曼德拉先生很值得欣赏。

One hero that many AIDS activists have difficulty accepting, though, is George Bush junior.
不过,许多艾滋病活动家难以接受,另个英雄,是小布什。

Activists do not much like born-again Christians, who take a dim view of the sort of sex lives that help to spread HIV.
活动家极不喜欢那些信仰重生的基督徒与其蔑视“性生活能传播艾滋病”的行为。

But Mr. Bush was responsible for setting up the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief and for making sure it had plenty of money.
但是布什先生负责建立艾滋病救济总统紧急计划,并确保提供充足的资金。

PEPFAR is one of the two main organizations, along with the Global Fund, that dish out the cash that rich countries give poor ones to combat AIDS.
PEPFAR是两个富裕国家给贫穷国家在与艾滋病抗争上提供现金救济的主要组织之一,与环球基金齐名。

Last year, it spent almost $7 billion on AIDS and the tuberculosis that often accompanies it, and it is responsible for helping half of the 6.6m people now on anti-retroviral drugs.
去年,它在抗艾滋病和往往伴随出现的结核病上将近花费70亿美元,而且在逆转病毒药物上六千六百万患者中半数都能受惠。

Many activists may be reluctant to give Mr. Bush credit. But handsome is as handsome does.
许多活动家可能不太愿意嘉许布什的功劳。但是,行为美才是真美。



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