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经济学人双语版:意大利的劳动市场 变奏进行中

2016-04-28    来源:经济学人    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

经济学人:意大利的劳动市场 变奏进行中

Italy's labour market
意大利的劳动市场

Marching to a different tune
变奏进行中

A bold move to free up employment
开放就业市场的大胆举措

WHILE many people's eyes were on Greece, another southern European country was taking a very different approach to easing its economic plight. On February 20th Italy's left-right coalition headed by Matteo Renzi approved two decrees enacting the core of an employment reform that parliament had broadly endorsed last year.
当很多人关注希腊时,欧洲南部的另一个国家为了缓解经济困境正在实行一项大不相同的战略。2月20日,以马泰奥•伦齐为首的意大利左右翼政党联合政府通过两项法令,颁布就业改革的核心措施,此项改革去年得到议会的广泛支持。

The measures aim to close a yawning gap between Italy's labour-market “outsiders”, who are mostly younger workers on short-term contracts with scant entitlement to welfare benefits, and the protected “insiders”, typically older workers, who enjoy both job security and the certainty of an adequate pension.
这些措施旨在缩小意大利劳动市场的“局外人”与受保护的“局内人”之间的巨大差距。“局外人”多为年轻工作者,他们的工作属于短期,且缺少生活福利;“局内人”通常是年老工作者,他们享受就业保障的同时,还可以享受充足稳定的养老金。

The reform sweeps away a skein of temporary contracts, replacing them with one that affords new employees progressively greater safeguards until, after three years, they become entitled to a permanent job. On the other hand, the reform ends the right to reinstatement of workers judged to have been unfairly fired. (That entitlement will now be reserved mainly for victims of discrimination.) Compensation will be given instead.
这次改革取消了一批临时合同,取而代之的是这样的合同:新员工可获得日益增多的强大保障,三年后成为正式职员方可终止。另一方面,此项改革取消了被无理解雇人员复职的权利。(该权利现在主要保留在种族歧视受害者身上。)改为给予补偿。

That nullifies a clause in Italy’s 1970 Workers' Charter that the left holds sacred. Mr Renzi's determination to meddle with it has poisoned relations between the prime minister and a big minority within his centre-left Democratic party. But his reform also creates a new benefit for the involuntarily unemployed: a monthly payment of up to 1,300 that can last for two years, but which starts to taper after four months. At the end of two years, a jobless worker becomes entitled to lesser benefits.
至此废除了意大利1970年制定、左翼政党信守的《工人宪章》中的一项条款。伦齐总理决意改革宪章,严重影响了其与中左翼民主党内大批少数党派人士的关系。但他的改革也为非自愿失业者带来新福利:两年内每月有多达1300欧元(合1480美元)的工资,但四个月后逐渐减少。两年期限结束时,失业人员能够享受较少福利。

The reform has limitations. It does not affect public-sector workers, who are almost impossible to get rid of. It only applies to new hirings (though, since so many of Italy’s workers are now on short-term contracts, its effects will soon be felt). The unions hate it, but employers, who will get generous incentives to use the new contract, welcomed it. Mr Renzi said it meant that “rights enter the vocabulary of a generation that hitherto has been excluded.” It will help create jobs and prosperity, added his finance minister, Pier Carlo Padoan.
此次改革亦有弊端。公共部门人员失业可能性很小,因此不会受到改革的影响。它仅适用于新职员工(然而,很多意大利工人目前的工作属于短期,改革的影响不久就会见效)。工会对此嗤之以鼻,而雇佣方则欣然接受,他们通过使用新型合同获取大手笔奖励。伦齐表示此举意味着“至今还未享有权利的一代人从此有了权利。”其财务大臣Pier Carlo Padoan另外表示,这将有助于增加就业机会,创造繁荣景象。

Both are sorely needed.Italy's unemployment rate is 12.9%, but among those aged between 15 and 29 it is 42%. The economy remains obstinately static, though most forecasters predict growth of around 0.6% this year. The hope is that the reform will raise productivity, cut unemployment and encourage investment, particularly from abroad.
这两方面亟待解决。意大利的失业率为12.9%,但15至29岁这一人群的失业率为42%。多数预报认为今年的经济增速约为0.6%,但经济仍然停滞不前。人们希望此次改革能够提高生产力,减少失业率,并且鼓励投资,尤其是外来投资。

But there are also some doubts. One is whether bosses will in fact start to hire more freely. And since those already in permanent work will be put on the new (and, for them, less advantageous) contract if they change jobs, there is a chance the reform could discourage labour mobility.
但同时存在一些疑虑。其中之一就是:老板们在实际雇佣工人时能否更加自由开放。长期工换工作的话,将按照新型(对他们来说,弊大于利的)合同工作,那么改革可能会阻碍劳动力的流动性。

The bigger question is what comes next. Labour-market measures were rushed onto the government's agenda last autumn only when it became clear the economy was not recovering. Mr Renzi's priority remains political and constitutional reform, which he views as essential for decisive government, and for enabling further economic measures that Italy needs. Privatisations and some limited liberalisation are planned. But if the economy does revive, such reforms might once again go on the back burner.
更大的问题在于结果如何。去年秋天,政府清楚地发现经济没有恢复的迹象,于是才将劳动力市场措施提上日程。伦齐仍优先进行政治与宪法改革,他认为这是政府决断性的根本体现,同时对经济措施的进一步实施也极其重要。计划实现私有化和一定程度上的有限自由化。但如果经济得到恢复,这些改革措施可能会重新暂缓实行。翻译:石海霞 校对:陈思思(译文属译生译世)



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