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VOA慢速[教育报道]五段式论文结构解析

2014-12-22    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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This is the VOA Learning English Education Report.

Many students say there is no easy way to write college papers. This may be especially true if English is not your first language. Most teachers agree that there is no single correct way to create a personal essay or research paper. But there are methods to help you structure your papers.

One way often used to structure writing is the traditional five-paragraph essay. Many students learn this form in middle and high school. The paragraphs follow conventions or established rules.

The first paragraph is introductory. It tells the reader what the paper is about. It is followed by three paragraphs containing evidence that support the writer's argument. The final paragraph is the conclusion. It provides a reasoned opinion based on the evidence.

Allison Cummings teaches English at Southern New Hampshire University. She is among many professors who find this form too simple for college work. Still, on the positive side, Ms. Cummings says the five-paragraph essay form teaches a student some tools for writing a paper. 

She says the form teaches the need for the opening statement or thesis. This thesis tells the reader what will come next. In addition students who have learned to write a five-paragraph essay know they must provide evidence. And Ms. Cummings says the writer will know a conclusion is required.

But she also says the five-paragraph essay falls far short of college writing needs.

"Most of the subjects that students are asked to write about are going to involve more paragraphs, and more points and more complexities."

So if a traditional method for structuring a research paper does not work, what steps can help you structure your writing. Ms. Cummings' students learn several ways to organize their papers. The pace at which they learn differs.

Ms. Cummings says doing research for a paper helps some students in their writing. The teacher says noting the way the research is structured can help students organize their own writing.

"They will read articles and see what other people argue about whatever issues they are writing on and get a sense of what the points out there, what the debates are out there, and then let that structure what they come up with."

Allison Cummings offers sample outlines -- examples for organizing papers.

"If they want to use them, they are free to follow that kind of standard template."

Ms. Cummings also provides her students with examples of successful and unsuccessful student papers. That way her class can see what works in a piece of writing and what does not.

And that's the VOA Learning English Education Report. I'm Jerri Watson.

本文来源于普特论坛[report整理] SENEWS-2014-11-20


这里是美国之音慢速英语的教育报道。

很多学生都说写大学论文没有捷径。如果英语不是你的第一语言,这可能的却如此。大多数教师认为没有唯一"正确的"方法来写个人论文或是研究论文。但是有方法来帮助你组织论文。

组织论文的常用办法是传统的五段式论文。很多学生在初高中学过这种格式,其段落遵从固定模式。

第一段是序言,告诉读者文章的主题。接下来的三段是能支持作者论点的论据。最后一段是结论,这一段基于证据提出合理观点。

Allison Cummings在位于南部的新罕布什尔大学教英语。她和其他很多教授一样,都认为这种格式对大学作业来说太过简单。

她说这种格式使学生学到了如何开篇点题。这种论文还告诉了读者下文是什么内容。除此之外,掌握五段式的学生知道他们必须提供论据。Cummings教授说作者也必须知道结论。 

然而她说五段式文章和大学论文的要求差得很远。

“根据要求大多数学生都必须写更多段落、更多论点和更加复杂的文章。”

因此如果写研究论文的传统方法没有效果的话,该如何组织论文呢?Cummings教授的学生学习了几种方法,不过他们学习的效率不同。

Cummings教授说为写论文做研究利于提高学生的写作能力。她还说指出研究的结构能帮助学生组织自己的写作。

“他们会阅读文章看看其他人如何看待看待他们的观点的,如何进行辩论,然后组织成结构。” 

Allison Cummings 提供了梗概的模板—组织论文的模板。

“如果他们想用这些模版,可以随意模仿这样的标准格式。”

Cummings 教授还给学生提供了论文成败的案例。这样她的学生就知道写文章怎样是有效的,怎样是不对的。

以上是美国之音慢速英语的教育报道,我是Jerri Watson。



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