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高居榜首Topping the charts

2016-09-21    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

根据研究调查显示,目前荷兰男性和拉脱维亚女性的平均身高为世界第一。欧洲国家普遍位于全球身高排行榜前列,但伊朗男性和韩国女性的身高在过去的100年间增长幅度最大。什么能使我们长高,是基因还是环境?长得高就能长寿这个说法是真的吗?本期《随身英语》探讨个子高的益处。
课文内容

词汇: Height 词汇: 身高

It seems that these days it's the European nations who have the tallest men and women. Research carried out by over 800 scientists measuring height trends for different nationalities since 1914 has found that Dutch men and Latvian women now top the height charts. However, according to the study, it's Iranian men and South Korean women who have shot up the most – they have gained on average more than 16cm and 20cm respectively.

In the UK, the rate of growth for men and women has been the same – 11 cm – with the average male now standing at 178cm and the average female at 164cm , both 5cm shorter than the average Dutchman and Latvian female.

Surprisingly, US men and women have sunk right down in the rankings. While in 1914, they were ranked third tallest for men and fourth tallest for women, nowadays they are down to 27th and 42nd,and today it's Estonia who has the third tallest men and women. East Asia has seen the most gain in height – with people in China, Japan and South Korea much taller than they were 100 years ago. The survey found that the world's smallest men are in East Timor, 160cm, and smallest women, 150cm, are from Guatemala, 20cm smaller than Latvian women.


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According to the authors of the study, based at Imperial College in London, genetics are not the sole factor in determining height variation among different nations, as Majid Ezzati, lead scientist of the project explained: "Genes don't change that fast and they don't vary that much across the world. So changes over time and variations across the world are largely environmental." Of critical importance were sanitation, healthcare and nutrition, he said, as well as the mother's health and diet during pregnancy.

Other surprising findings, relating to how height impacts on people's health and income, have been revealed. For example, tall people can expect enhanced longevity and they are less likely to suffer from heart disease. Tall people are also likely to earn more! According to research by Exeter University, a British man who is 7.5 cm shorter than his counterpart will earn £1,500 less!It might be time to invest in a pair of shoes with heels!
词汇表

to measure 测量
trend 趋势,趋向
to shoot up 迅速长高
respectively 分别地
growth 生长
to sink 降低
ranking 排名
gain 增长,提高
genetics 遗传学
sole 唯一的,单独的
to determine 决定
height variation 身高的变化
critical 关键性的
sanitation 卫生设备
healthcare 医疗保健
nutrition 营养
diet 日常饮食
enhanced 提高的,增加的
longevity 长寿
counterpart (与组织的人或物)相对应者
测验与练习

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. True or false? The tallest women are from the Netherlands.

2. Which country has seen the greatest increase in men's height over the last century? 

3. Name two factors that influence how tall different nationalities are.

4. What health advantages are there in being tall according to the article?

5. According to UK research, how might your height affect your income?

2. 请你在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. There is a growing __________ nowadays for teenagers to be taller than their parents. 

habit       trend       custom       routine

2. Gosh, Jamie, you've really __________ up since I last saw you. How tall are you now? 

shootened       grown       shot       got

3. Lily is tiny for her age. She's the __________ girl in her class by far.

smallest       most small       smaller       smalliest

4. It's not easy to __________ the role of genetics in how tall people grow.

vary       determine       factor       differ

5. The scientist leading the investigation consulted with __________ in the department on when to call a halt to the experiment.

companions       counterparts       colleagues       controllers
答案

1. 阅读课文并回答问题。

1. True or false? The tallest women are from the Netherlands.
False. The tallest women are from Latvia.

2. Which country has seen the greatest increase in men's height over the last century?
Iran.

3. Name two factors that influence how tall different nationalities are.
(Any two from) genetics, sanitation, healthcare, nutrition

4. What health advantages are there in being tall according to the article?
Tall people tend to live longer and are less likely to have heart disease.

5. According to UK research, how might your height affect your income?
Taller people earn more than their shorter counterparts.

2. 请你在不参考课文的情况下完成下列练习。选择一个意思合适的单词填入句子的空格处。

1. There is a growing trend nowadays for teenagers to be taller than their parents.

2. Gosh, Jamie, you've really shot up since I last saw you. How tall are you now?

3. Lily is tiny for her age. She's the smallest girl in her class by far.

4. It's not easy to determine the role of genetics in how tall people grow.

5. The scientist leading the investigation consulted with colleagues in the department on when to call a halt to the experiment.



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