10 Vanity Fair （William Makepeace Thackeray, 1848）/威廉·梅克皮斯·萨克雷《名利场》，1848年出版
Vanity Fair is an English novel by William Makepeace Thackeray which follows the lives of Becky Sharp and Emmy Sedley amid/在其中 their friends and families during and after the Napoleonic Wars/拿破仑战争. It was first published as a 19-volume monthly serial/连载 from 1847 to 1848, carrying the subtitle/副标题 Pen and Pencil Sketches of English Life, reflecting both its satirisation/讽刺 of early 19th-century British society and the many illustrations/插图 drawn by Thackeray to accompany the text. It was published as a single volume in 1848 with the subtitle A Novel without a Hero, reflecting Thackeray's interest in deconstructing/解构 his era's conventions regarding literary heroism/文学英雄主义. It is sometimes considered the "principal founder" of the Victorian/维多利亚时代 domestic novel.
9 Frankenstein （Mary Shelley, 1818）/玛莉·雪莱《科学怪人》，1818年出版
Frankenstein is infused/注入 with elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement. At the same time, it is an early example of science fiction/科幻小说. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story because, in contrast to previous stories with fantastical elements resembling/类似 those of later science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate/深思熟虑的 decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results. It has had a considerable influence in literature and popular culture and spawned/制造 a complete genre of horror stories, films and plays.
Since the novel's publication, the name "Frankenstein" has often been used to refer to the monster itself, as it is in the stage adaptation by Peggy Webling. This usage is sometimes considered erroneous/错误的, but usage commentators/评论员 regard it as well-established and acceptable. In the novel, the monster is identified by words such as "wretch/卑贱之人", "creature", "monster", "demon", and "it". Speaking to Victor Frankenstein, the wretch refers to himself as "the Adam of your labours", and elsewhere as someone who "would have" been "your Adam", but is instead "your fallen angel."
8 David Copperfield （Charles Dickens, 1850）/查尔斯·狄更斯《大卫·科波菲尔》，1850年出版
David Copperfield, is the eighth novel by Charles Dickens. The novel's full title is, The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation/观察 of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account). It was first published as a serial/连载 in 1849–50, and as a book in 1850. Many elements of the novel follow events in Dickens' own life, and it is often considered as his veiled/掩饰的 autobiography/自传. It was Dickens' favorite among his own novels. In the preface/前言 to the 1867 edition, Dickens wrote, "like many fond parents, I have in my heart of hearts a favourite child. And his name is David Copperfield."
7 Wuthering Heights（Emily Bronte, 1847）/艾米莉·勃朗特《呼啸山庄》，1847年出版
Wuthering Heights is Emily Brontë's only novel. Written between October 1845 and June 1846, Wuthering Heights was published in 1847 under the pseudonym/笔名/化名 "Ellis Bell"; Brontë died the following year, aged 30. Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey were accepted by publisher Thomas Newby before the success of their sister Charlotte's novel, Jane Eyre. After Emily's death, Charlotte edited the manu/手稿 of Wuthering Heights, and arranged for the edited version to be published as a posthumous/作者死后出版的 second edition in 1850.
Although Wuthering Heights is now widely regarded as a classic/经典 of English literature, contemporary/当代的 reviews for the novel were deeply polarized/两极化; it was considered controversial/有争议的 because its depiction/描写 of mental and physical cruelty/残酷 was unusually stark/十足的, and it challenged strict Victorian ideals of the day regarding religious hypocrisy/伪善, morality, social classes and gender inequality. The English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although an admirer of the book, referred to it as "A fiend of a book – an incredible monster. The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there."
6 Bleak House（Charles Dickens, 1853）/查尔斯·狄更斯《荒凉之屋》，1853年出版
Bleak House is one of Charles Dickens's major novels, first published as a serial between March 1852 and September 1853. The novel has many characters and several sub-plots, and the story is told partly by the novel's heroine/女英雄, Esther Summerson, and partly by an omniscient/无所不知的 narrator/旁白. At the centre of Bleak House is the long-running legal case, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, which came about because someone wrote several conflicting wills. This legal case is used by Dickens to satirize/讽刺 the English judicial system/司法体系, and he makes use of his earlier experiences as a law clerk/职员, and as a litigant/诉讼当事人 seeking to enforce copyright on his earlier books.
5 Jane Eyre（Charlotte Bronte, 1847）/夏洛蒂·勃朗特《简·爱》，1847年出版
Jane Eyre /???r/ (originally published as Jane Eyre: An Autobiography) is a novel by English writer Charlotte Brontë. It was published on 16 October 1847, by Smith, Elder & Co. of London, England, under the pen name/笔名 "Currer Bell." The first American edition was published the following year by Harper & Brothers of New York.
Primarily/起初 of the Bildungsroman/成长小说 genre, Jane Eyre follows the emotions and experiences of its eponymous/齐名的 heroine, including her growth to adulthood and her love for Mr. Rochester, the Byronic/拜伦风格的 master of fictitious/虚构的 Thornfield Hall. In its internalization/内在化 of the action—the focus is on the gradual unfolding of Jane's moral and spiritual sensibility, and all the events are coloured by a heightened intensity that was previously the domain/领域 of poetry—Jane Eyre revolutionized/改革 the art of fiction. Charlotte Brontë has been called the 'first historian of the private consciousness' and the literary ancestor of writers like Joyce and Proust. The novel contains elements of social criticism, with a strong sense of morality at its core, but is nonetheless/尽管如此 a novel many consider ahead of its time given the individualistic character of Jane and the novel's exploration of classism, sexuality, religion, and proto-feminism/女权主义的雏形.
4 Great Expectations（Charles Dickens, 1861）/查尔斯·狄更斯《远大前程》，1861年出版
Great Expectations is the thirteenth novel by Charles Dickens and his penultimate/倒数第二个 completed novel; a bildungsroman that depicts/描述 the personal growth and personal development of an orphan/孤儿 nicknamed Pip. It is Dickens's second novel, after David Copperfield, to be fully narrated/叙述 in the first person. The novel was first published as a serial in Dickens's weekly periodical/期刊 All the Year Round, from 1 December 1860 to August 1861. In October 1861, Chapman and Hall published the novel in three volumes.
3 Mrs Dalloway（Virginia Woolf, 1925）/弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙《达洛卫夫人》，1925年出版
Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May 1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway, a fictional high-society woman in post–First World War England. It is one of Woolf's best-known novels.
Created from two short stories, "Mrs Dalloway in Bond Street" and the unfinished "The Prime Minister," the novel addresses Clarissa's preparations for a party she will host that evening. With an interior perspective, the story travels forwards and back in time and in and out of the characters' minds to construct an image of Clarissa's life and of the inter-war social structure. In October 2005, Mrs Dalloway was included on Time's list of the 100 best English-language novels written since 1923.
2 To the Lighthouse（Virginia Woolf, 1927）/弗吉尼亚·伍尔芙《到灯塔去》，1927年出版
To the Lighthouse is a 1927 novel by Virginia Woolf. The novel centres on the Ramsays and their visits to the Isle of Skye/斯凯岛 in Scotland between 1910 and 1920. Following and extending the tradition of modernist novelists like Marcel Proust and James Joyce, the plot of To the Lighthouse is secondary to its philosophical introspection/内省. Cited as a key example of the literary technique of Multiple Focalization/多重聚焦, the novel includes little dialogue and almost no action; most of it is written as thoughts and observations. The novel recalls childhood emotions and highlights adult relationships. Among the book's many tropes/比喻 and themes are those of loss, subjectivity/主观性, the nature of art and the problem of perception/感知.
1 Middlemarch （George Eliot, 1874）/乔治·艾略特《米德尔马契》，1874年出版
Middlemarch, A Study of Provincial/地方的乡间的 Life is a novel by English author George Eliot, first published in eight installments (volumes) during 1871–2. The novel is set in the fictitious/虚构的 Midlands town of Middlemarch during 1829–32, and it comprises/包含 several distinct (though intersecting) stories and a large cast of characters. Significant themes include the status of women, the nature of marriage, idealism/理想主义, self-interest, religion, hypocrisy/伪善, political reform, and education.