Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer and an artist. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is among the most influential people in British history, consistently ranking well in opinion polls of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom.
温斯顿·伦纳德·斯宾塞·丘吉尔（ Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill，1874年11月30日－1965年1月24日），英国最伟大的政治家、历史学家、画家、演说家、作家、记者。
The Harbor of the City of Havana
Cienfuegos, 9 November 1895
Most people have probably noticed that the initial difficulties of any undertaking are in many cases the most insuperable. The first few sentences, whether of a proposal of marriage or of a newspaper article, require more thought, and involve more effort, than any of those which follow. And if this is the case with those who are accustomed by experience to break the ice in either circumstance, how much more does it apply to the beginnings of the beginner. It is on account of these difficulties that I shall allow their enumeration to stand in place of further prelude, and plunge at once into the middle of the subject—and the harbor of the city of Havana.
High up on the cliffs, as the ship enters the narrows, one sees the fortress of EI Moro, formerly a place of great strength, and commanding the channel to the port. It is now used only as a prison for political and military offenders, and as an occasional place of execution. Here it was that the sentence of death on Lieutenant Gallegos was carried out in May last. This officer had the charge of a small post with some fifty soldiers, and was unfortunate enough to be breakfasting in a café when the insurgents happened to pass, and so was taken prisoner, with all his men. The rebels let them go, but keep their arms, and the court-martial sentenced the lieutenant to be shot for neglect of duty.
The town shows no sign of the insurrection, and business proceeds everywhere as usual. Passports are, however, strictly examined, and all baggage is searched with a view to discovering pistols or other arms. During the passage from Tampa on the boat the most violent reports of the condition of Havana were rife. Yellow fever was said to be prevalent, and the garrisonwas reported to have over 400 cases. As a matter of fact, there is really not much sickness, and what there is confined to the lower part of the town. What struck me most was the absence of any news. London may know much of what is going on in the island—New York is certain to know more—but Havana hears nothing. All the papers are strictly edited by the Government and are filled with foreign and altogether irrelevant topics. It was explained to me that while the Spanish authorities were masters of the art of suppressing the truth, the Cubans were adept at inventing falsehood. By this arrangement conflicting statements and inaccuracy are like assured. During the evening which I passed in the capital some volunteers marched in front, preceded by a band and surrounded by a great crowd. They were a fine lot of men—young, but well developed—and though they looked tired, marched jauntily, and were evidently much pleased with themselves. Their uniform was made of white cotton and they wore large straw hats of limp material, twisted into every conceivableshape. They were very dirty and did not preserve much order, but for all that they looked like soldiers and were well armed. These “volunteers“, of whom there are about 25,000 in all, take it in turn to garrison the different outlying towns, afterwards coming back for duty in Havana.
In the diary you find proof that in situations which today would seem unbearable, you lived, looked around and wrote down observations, that this right hand moved then as it does today, when we may be wiser because we are able to look back upon our former condition, and for that very reason have got to admit the courage of our earlier striving in which we persisted even in sheer ignorance.
奥地利小说家弗朗兹·卡夫卡在《坚持写日记的好处》（One Advantage in Keeping a Diary）中写道：“在日记中你可以找到证据，证明人们曾在今天看来难以忍受的境况中生活过、环顾过，并且还把观察结果记载下来，也就是这只右手曾像今天这样动过。我们由于有可能回顾过去的情形而变得更加聪明，为此就更有理由不得不承认我们那时的奋斗所具有的勇气，尽管在奋斗中不免存在着非常肤浅的无知。“