Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions.
Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences.
1) Why are most countries not concerned about environmental awareness?
2) Which two countries have taken steps to protect their rain forests?
3) Which is the most polluted industrial area in the world? What is the result of this pollution?
Environmental Protection Throughout the World
In most parts of the world, environmental awareness does not exist. The great majority of nations concern themselves with economic development, regardless of its effect on the global ecology. But in recent years, as environmental damage has increased, signs of change have sprung up in various pockets around the world. The following are a few examples of countries undertaking new environmental initiatives.
When European explorers first came to the New World, the fishing grounds off what would become eastern Canada and New England held abundant cod and other species. The area, called the Grand Banks, was the most abundant fishing ground in the world.
Now, 500 years later, excessive fishing has reduced the number of fish to dangerously low levels. In response, Canada has closed the area to cod fishing and set strict limits on catches of other species.
When Canada took similar measures to protect the supply of herring in the 1970s, the fish eventually recovered. But experts say that some species today have been so wasted, they may never recover. The government also faces protests from Canadian fishermen. About 40,000 are now unemployed as a result of the fishing bans and loss of their fish supply.
This Central American country has one of the most ambitious programs in the world to preserve the ecological diversity of its tropical rain forests. Much of the country has already been clear-cut, and soil erosion has been extensive. But a series of new environmental laws, together with the creation of parks and nature preserves that cover one quarter of the country, are aimed at protecting Costa Rica's remaining forests.
Brazil is home to the world's largest jungle rain forest, the Amazon. For decades, the government sought to colonize and develop the Amazon, bringing severe environmental disaster to the area and its people.
But in 1991, under pressure from environmentalists around the world, Brazil reversed course. It ended tax favors that had encouraged clearing of the Amazon rain forest, and agreed to a plan to finance new forest protection projects.
Cattle farmers, miners, and settlers have protested the move and continue to destroy the forests, although at a slower pace than before. The conflict enlarged last year when miners killed a group of Amazon Indians in order to seize their land. The government promises it will protect the region's native people, but questions remain as to its true level of commitment.
The nations of Eastern Europe, including Poland, Hungary, and the Czech and Slovak Republics, are considered the most polluted of all the world's industrialized countries. Heavy metals from coal mining have contaminated much of the area's waters. Rivers, land, and forests are so contaminated that many are now biologically dead.
In a special series of treaties, Eastern European countries and other nations, including the United States, have set up special funds for environmental cleanups and improving the region's power plants. In addition, Germany and the Czech Republic have signed a treaty to protect the Elbe River from further contamination. Experts say the treaty could serve as a model for protecting other rivers in the region, including the Oder and Danube.
Ghana's population has been growing by 3.2 percent a year. This explosive growth has led to removal of forests in much of the country, and excessive use of existing farmland. Forests have been cut down at the rate of 278 square miles a year.
In response, the government has urged local villages to create more shared farmland. It has sponsored the growing of cash crops such as cassava, maize, cotton, and the planting of trees to regenerate waste land. Observers say the program has succeeded in strengthening the country's agricultural base and bringing a new source of wealth to villagers. But it remains to be seen whether these measures will have enough impact to slow the rate of removing the forests.
Indonesians have traditionally favored large families, and their major religion, Islam, frowns on birth control. But with 188 million people, the country is now struggling to provide enough food, shelter, and employment for its people. In recent years, the government has waged a massive ad campaign to encourage birth control, offering inducements such as free trips to Mecca, the birthplace of Islam in Saudi Arabia.
The government has succeeded in increasing use of birth control from 10 percent of the population 20 years ago to 49 percent today. As a result, the average number of births has been cut from 5.6 children per woman to 3. The government hopes to reduce this average to 2.1 children per woman by 2005. But with such a large population base, the country must still convert millions more to the idea of birth control if it is to reach its population targets.
a. 1. covering and affecting the whole world; worldwide 全球的，世界范围的
2. covering the whole of a group of parts, etc. 包括一切的，总括的
n. [U] (the relationships between) the air, land, water, animals, plants, etc., usu. of a particular area 生态，生态学
vt. 1. (start to) make oneself responsible for (sth.) 担任，承担
2. agree or promise to do sth. 同意做，要做，答应
n. 1. [C] action taken to solve a difficulty 解决困难所采取的行动，初步行动
2. (the～) (sing.) power or right to take action 采取行动的能力（权利或权力），主动权，优先权
3. [U] ability to see what needs to be done and try to do it, esp. without other's help 主动，进取精神（尤指不求助于外力的）
a. 1. more than enough; plenty 很多的，丰富的，充裕的
2. (in/with) having plenty of sth., rich in sth. 富于，富有
n. (pl. unchanged) 鳕鱼
n. (pl. unchanged) group of animals and plants only different in little details from the others, and able to breed with each other but not with other groups 物种，种类
n. [C] person who catches fish, as a job or for sport 钓鱼者；渔民，渔夫
a. 1. showing or requiring a particular desire of this kind 显示或需要雄心的
2. full of strong desires, esp. for money or success 充满野心的，雄心勃勃的（尤指为金钱或功名的）
a. 1. of different kinds; various 种类不同的，多种多样的
2. different (from each other); not the same 不同的，相异的
n. [U] (sing.) state of being different; variety 差异，多样，多样性
vt. cut down all the trees in a forest area 砍伐殆尽（一块林区）
n. 1. [U] process of being worn away or destroyed bit by bit by rain, wind ,etc. 腐蚀，侵蚀
2. [U] reducing; destroying 削弱，减少；损害
a. 1. large in area; extending far （指面积）辽阔的，广阔的
2. wide-ranging; large in amount 广泛的，大量的
n. (pl. unchanged) number of things, events, etc. of a similar kind, esp. placed or happening one after another 一连串，一系列，连续的事物（件）
n. 1. [U, C] area of land, usu. in a tropical country, that is covered with a thick growth of trees and plants 丛林，密林
2. [C] a place of intense or confusing struggle 斗争激烈的地方
n. 1. [C] a country or area settled or taken over by people from another country and controlled by that country 殖民地
2. [C] a group of people from a foreign country living in a particular city or country 侨民（集合名词）
3. [C] a group of animals or plants living or growing in the same place【生】群居动物，生长在一地的植物，群体（集合名词）
vt. establish a colony in (an area); establish (an area) as a colony 在（一个地区）开拓殖民地，使殖民地化
vt. 1. turn (sth.) the other way round or up, or inside out 反转，颠倒，翻转
2. exchange (two functions, positions, etc.) 互换（功能、地位等）
3. remove or wipe out 撤消，取消
n. 1. (sing.) thing that is the contrary or opposite to what is expected 相对，相反
2. [C] other side or back of sth. 背面，反面
3. [C] change for the worse; bad luck or trouble 挫折，不幸
a. contrary or opposite to what is expected 相对的，相反的，颠倒的
n. 1. [C, U] (sum of) money to be paid by people or business to a government for public purpose 税，税额
2. [C, U] a stress on sth. 负担
vt. 1. require (sb.) to pay tax 对……征税，要求……付税
2. make heavy demands on (sth.) 使负重担，使受沉重压力
vt. provide money for (a project, etc.) 为（项目）提供经费，为……提供资金
n. 1. [U] management of (esp. public) money 理财（尤指公款），金融财政
2. (pl.) money available to a person, company or country （个人、公司、政府的）财源，资金
n. 1. [C, U] (of opinions, desires, etc.) opposing; difference; clash （指意见、欲望）冲突，抵触
2. [C, U] struggle; fight 斗争，战斗
vi. be against or in disagreement; clash 与……相反, 抵触, 冲突
v. develop (a country or an area) extensively with industries （使）工业化
vt. make sth./sb. dirty or polluted by adding dangerous or disease-carrying matter 污染，玷污，弄脏，污损
n. [U] contaminating or being contaminated 污染，玷污
n. [U] scientific study of the life and structure of plants and animals 生物学
ad. of or relating to biology 生物学上
n. 1. [C] an official agreement between two or more countries （国与国之间缔结的）条约
2. [U] official agreement between people, esp. for the buying of property （尤指购置财产时人与人之间的）协约，约定，协商
n. 1. [C] a sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose 专款，基金
2. (sing.) stock of supply of sth. 贮藏，储存
3. (pl.) resources of finance; money 财源，金钱，现款
vt. provide (an organization, a project, etc.) with money （为公共机构、工程项目）提供资金
a. 1. increasing very quickly 激增的，迅速扩大的
2. able to burst suddenly and easily 爆炸的，爆发的，爆炸性的
n. [C, U] thing which is likely or able to explode 炸药
n. 1. [U] getting rid of 去除，消除
2. [U] taking sth. away from a place; transfer 挪走，移走，搬迁
vt. 1. support (a person, organization or activity) by giving money, encouragement or other help 赞助，支持
2. start; hold 发起，举办，主办
n. 1. [C] a person who puts forward or assures an idea 发起人，保证人
2. [C] a person who pays money to support another person, organization or activity 资助人，赞助人
n. [U] money in coins or notes 现钞
vt. exchange sth. for cash 兑换现金，兑现
n. [C] 木薯
n. [U] 玉蜀黍，玉米
vt. 1. produce 生成，产生（光、热、电等）
2. cause to exist; produce 引起，产生
vt. improve (a place or a network), esp. by making it more active or successful 重建，复兴，革新
n. person who watches carefully 观察家，观察的人，观察员
vt. cause sb./sth. to become stronger 使坚强，使强壮，加固，巩固，加强，增强
n. 1. [C] (usu. sing.) strong impression or effect on sb./sth. 对……的强烈的印象或影响
2. [U] hitting of one object against another 碰撞，撞击
v. 1. leave a powerful effect on a situation or person 影响，作用
2. strike, hit 碰撞，撞击
v. 1. (on/upon) disagree; disapproved 不赞成，反对
n. [C] 皱眉
n. 1. [U] living place 住所，住处
2. [C] a structure built to give protection, esp. from rain, wind or attack 掩蔽部，掩蔽处，躲避处
3. [U] condition of being protected, kept safe, etc. 掩蔽，遮蔽，保护
vt. give shelter to (sb./sth.); protect (sb./sth.) 掩蔽，遮蔽，庇护
vi. find a place that gives shelter; take shelter 躲难，避难
vt. begin and carry on (a war, campaign, etc.) 发起，进行（战争、运动等）
n. (pl.) regular (usu. per week) pay made or received for work or services 工资，报酬（通常按周计酬）
a. 1. very large in amount or number 大量的，大规模的
2. large in size, heavy 大的，大而重的，大块的
n. [C] 广告（advertisement的缩略）
vt. 1. persuade or influence sb. to do sth. 引诱，诱导
2. bring sth. about; cause 导致，引起
n. [C, U] (sth. which provides) encouragement to do sth. 诱因，引诱物，动机
v. 1. change one's belief, attitude, etc. （使）改变（信仰或态度等）
2. change sth. from one form or use to another 改变，转变
n. 1. [C] a level or situation which one plans to achieve （欲达到的）目标，指标
2. [C] an object or mark that a person tries to hit in shooting, etc. 目标，靶
vt. aim at sth.; cause to have an effect on a particular, intentionally limited group 瞄准……；把……作为目标
PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS
be busy with; interest oneself in 忙于，从事，关心
paying no attention to 不顾，不管
appear, develop, grow, etc. quickly or suddenly 迅速（或突然）的出现，发生，长出
take measures to
take action for a purpose 采取措施，采取办法
as a result of
because of 因……
intend or try to do 意欲或试图做
say "yes" to (an idea, opinion, suggestion, etc.) 同意，允诺，赞成
establish or create (sth.) 建立，创立
have sth. as its result 导致
a crop that is grown mainly to be sold, rather than used by the farmer or those living in the area it is grown in 经济作物
controlling the number of children 节育