July 11, 2017
Feeling That Trump Will ‘Say Anything,’ Europe Is Less Restrained, Too
HAMBURG, Germany — The Europeans have stopped trying to paper over their differences with President Donald Trump and the United States.
Traditionally respectful of U.S. leadership and mindful of the country’s crucial role in European defense and global trade, European leaders normally repress or soften their criticism of U.S. presidents. Europeans were generally not happy with President Barack Obama’s reluctance to involve the country in Libya and Syria, for example, or his tardiness to engage in what clearly became an international confrontation with Russia in Ukraine, but their criticism was quiet.
But at the Group of 20 summit meeting of the world’s industrialized nations, public splits with Trump were the order of the day. Those rifts have been reflected in European domestic politics, too, from Britain and France to Germany, where Chancellor Angela Merkel has said that Europe must “take our fate into our own hands“ and stop “glossing over“ clear differences.
The new French president, Emmanuel Macron, whose election has given renewed confidence to the Europeans, said bluntly: “Our world has never been so divided. Centrifugal forces have never been so powerful. Our common goods have never been so threatened.“
Macron, who waved his iPhone around during the meeting as a symbol of global trade, sharply criticized those like Trump who do not support multilateral institutions but push nationalism instead.
“We need better coordination, more coordination,“ Macron said. “We need those organizations that were created out of the Second World War. Otherwise, we will be moving back toward narrow-minded nationalism.“
Trump and the British vote to leave the European Union “have proved to be great unifiers for the European Union,“ said Mark Leonard, director of the European Council on Foreign Relations. “There is a renewed sense of confidence in Europe after the French election,“ the apparent retreat of populism, an increase in economic growth and the prospect of Merkel’s re-election in September, he said.
欧洲对外关系委员会(European Council on Foreign Relations)主任马克·伦纳德(Mark Leonard)表示，事实证明，特朗普当选和英国脱欧公投“对欧盟的统一发挥了极大作用“。他说：“在法国大选之后，公众对欧洲的信心愈发增强“，民粹主义出现明显败退，经济增长在上扬，默克尔也有望在9月获得连任。
“There is an increased willingness to be assertive toward Trump, who makes Merkel look like a figure of international importance,“ Leonard said. “If the election is about who can save the international world order from Trump,“ he added, then Merkel’s opposition seems unimportant and she finds an eager partner in Macron. “They egg each other on and feel more self-confident together and help keep Europe together, too.“
Jan Techau, director of the Richard Holbrooke Forum at the American Academy in Berlin, said: “There is now a more openly confrontational language with the United States. The European public is already outspoken about Trump, but now there is a more outspoken European leadership that won’t paper over these divisions anymore.“
柏林美国研究院(American Academy)理查德·霍布鲁克论坛(Richard Holbrooke Forum)的主任扬·特肖(Jan Techau)表示，“现在，与美国对抗的公开言辞更多了。欧洲公众之前对特朗普讲话就已经不客气，现在出现了更加直言不讳的欧洲领导层，他们也不再掩饰这些分歧。“
If Europeans had previously felt constrained because of their security dependency, Techau said, there is now a feeling that “Trump has no constraints and will say anything, and now the Europeans feel they can do the same.“ And, he said, “that means less respect for each other, and less mutual confidence.“
François Heisbourg, a French security analyst, agrees. “The reticence has gone away,“ he said. “On an issue-by-issue basis, there is apparently no penalty for playing hardball with Trump without necessarily affecting security, on climate for example.“
The strains were most visible here on climate policy and trade. Trump’s withdrawal from the Paris accord was widely condemned, with Merkel saying she deplored the move, and all the leaders aside from Trump signing up to language that called the agreement “irreversible.“
“Whatever leadership is,“ said one senior French diplomat, who was not authorized to speak by name and insisted on anonymity, “it is not being outvoted, 19-1.“
The climate debate in the meeting displayed how hard it is to isolate the richest, most powerful country in the world.
The Americans did try to persuade some countries, like Turkey and Poland, which Trump visited just before going to Hamburg, to move toward the U.S. position on climate, but they were rebuffed. Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, said later that his country might still be in play, depending on money. The U.S. withdrawal, he said, jeopardized compensation for developing countries to cope with compliance.
美国曾竭力劝说土耳其、波兰——特朗普在前往汉堡前刚刚访问了这两个国家——等国家在气候问题上转向美国的立场，但遭到了拒绝。土耳其总统雷杰普·塔伊普·埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)后来表示，他的国家或许还会参与其中，这取决于钱的多少。他表示，美国的退出会危及对发展中国家配合规则做出的补偿。
Prime Minister Theresa May of Britain, her authority weakened at home after a botched election gamble, also tried to balance Trump’s deep unpopularity in Britain with her need for U.S. support for the country’s exit from the European Union and for future trade deals. She was criticized for not making the climate issue one of her four priorities, and found comfort in Trump’s promise of a “very powerful“ trade deal for a post-Brexit Britain that could be completed “very, very quickly.“
May even expressed the hope that Trump might change his mind on Paris, though Merkel did not agree. And in the end, all wavering members sided with the 19, not the one.
The White House saw progress nonetheless. “The vast majority of the G-20 supports the president’s vision for universal access to affordable and reliable energy, including finding ways to burn fossil fuels more cleanly and efficiently,“ said George David Banks, a special assistant to the president on international energy and environment and lead negotiator for climate change during the G-20 conference.
然而，白宫却从中看到了进步。“20国集团的大多数成员都支持总统有关全民享受廉价、可靠的能源的想法，包括找到以更清洁、更有效地方式燃烧化石燃料的办法，“总统在国际能源与环境问题上的特别助理、在20国集团峰会期间担任美国气候问题首席谈判代表的乔治·戴维·班克斯(George David Banks)说。