中国启用首个境外军事基地

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2017-7-13 10:10

Chinese military base takes shape in Djibouti
中国启用首个境外军事基地

China’s first permanent overseas military deployment for almost six decades has set sail for Djibouti, the latest step in the Asian nation’s increasingly assertive foreign policy.
中国近60年来第一支永久性驻扎在境外的部队已向吉布提进发,这是这个亚洲国家日趋自信的外交政策的最新一步。

State television on Wednesday showed footage of Chinese marines in battle dress boarding modern amphibious ships in the southern city of Zhanjiang.
官方电视台周三播出了身穿战斗服的中国海军陆战队员在湛江港登上现代化两栖登陆舰的画面。

While Chinese troops have participated in UN peacekeeping assignments and rescue missions to Libya and Yemen, the new base in Djibouti marks the first time a long-term garrison of the People’s Liberation Army has been established beyond China’s borders since their withdrawal from North Korea in 1958.
尽管中国部队曾参加联合国维和行动,并且出征利比亚和也门执行救援任务,但位于吉布提的新基地标志着解放军自1958年从朝鲜撤出以来,首次在境外长期驻扎。

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It also symbolises a bolder foreign policy under President Xi Jinping. China still formally adheres to a policy of “non-intervention“ in the affairs of other countries but in practice has been stretching its interpretation of this principle, analysts say.
此举也是中国在国家主席习近平领导下实行更果敢外交政策的象征。分析人士说,中国在理论上仍然坚持“不干涉“别国事务的政策,但在实践中已经扩大了对这一原则的解释。

The overseas deployment “is a milestone event as it marks the activation of China’s first overseas military base
“, said Yanmei Xie, an authority on Chinese politics and policy at Gavekal Dragonomics, a research group.
研究机构龙洲经讯(Gavekal Dragonomics)的中国政治和政策权威人士谢艳梅表示,此次境外部署是“一个里程碑事件,因为它标志着中国启用首个境外军事基地“。

“China has been experimenting with a more proactive foreign policy, and Africa has been the test ground,“ she added.
“中国近年在尝试一种更加积极主动的外交政策,而非洲一直是试验场,“她补充说。

Analysts likened the move to the Chinese navy’s first anti-piracy patrols in the Gulf of Aden in 2012, and China’s first foreign deployment of combat troops as part of a UN peacekeeping mission to South Sudan in 2015.
分析人士把此举与之前的两件事作了类比:2012年中国海军首次在亚丁湾执行反海盗巡逻任务,以及2015年中国首次在境外部署作战部队参加联合国在南苏丹的维和行动。

“The rotation of these troops will increase the expeditionary experience of the People’s Liberation Army over time,“ said Gary Li, an authority on the Chinese military with APCO Worldwide, a consultancy in Beijing. “It all boils down to China reaching a level of confidence to actually deploy military assets in order to protect its overseas interests.“
“这些部队的轮换将会逐渐增加解放军的远征经验,“北京咨询公司安可顾问(APCO Worldwide)的中国军事权威人士加里•李(Gary Li)表示。“这一切都归结为中国达到一定程度的信心,敢于为了保护自己的海外利益而真的动用军事资产。“

Yue Gang, a former PLA colonel, said the base would give China a strategic presence in Africa in a traditionally American sphere of influence and leverage over a key naval chokepoint — the US and France both have bases there as well.
解放军退役上校岳刚表示,这个基地将使中国在美国的传统影响力范围内的非洲有一个战略存在,同时在一个关键的海军咽喉点有自己的力量——美国和法国在吉布提也有基地。

“China now has a bargaining chip with the United States for balancing each other. It will keep the US honest,“ he said.
“中国现在有一个针对美国的谈判筹码,双方相互抗衡。这将使美国老实,“他说。

China’s Xinhua state news agency said that despite a more assertive overseas posture, China would not seek military expansionism or get into arms races “no matter what happened“.
中国官方的新华社表示,尽管在海外采取更加自信的姿态,但是“不论发展到什么程度“,中国永远不搞军事扩张和军备竞赛。

“These promises will not change because of the construction of the overseas logistics base,“ it said in an editorial.
“这些承诺不会因海外保障基地的建设而有任何改变,“它在一篇社评中表示。

而实际上,美国是在世界上拥有海外基地最多的超级大国。美军在40多个国家有将近600个海外军事基地,有40多万美军在海外基地驻扎。

法国、英国海外基地数量紧随其后,但数量上有较大差距。

俄罗斯在苏联解体后,随着经济和军事实力下降,海外基地大幅收缩。最近10年,俄罗斯逐渐在恢复使用一些军事基地。

日本的举动才应该引起世界关注,日本2011年在吉布提建立了永久性军事基地,这也是二战后日本首次在海外建立军事基地。

中国国防部表示,这一保障设施将主要用于中国军队执行亚丁湾和索马里海域护航、维和、人道主义救援等任务的休整补给保障。

中国进口的一半石油要经过连接地中海和印度洋的曼德海峡。而吉布提恰恰位于曼德海峡沿岸。

中国对非洲的影响力早已超过美国和欧洲。中国的国有企业向非洲投资了数百亿美元。无论是投资还是本国公民都需要得到保护。