如何快速掌握一门外语,全球12位语言专家告诉你

作者:admin

来源:

2017-1-9 09:58

处于这个需要快速学习和大规模变革的世界,学习语言对于每个人来说都是一项重要技能。但是怎么快速掌握这门技能呢?它也是有一定规律可循的。

但是,大部分人在学习一门语言时,都会犯一个错误,那就是独自单行。其实这也是可以理解的,因为在我们的整个生活中,我们就一直是被这样教导的,像长时间沉浸在图书馆阅读,又或者参加几小时无聊的讲座。所以很自然地,当你学习一门语言时,你就会很自然地将这个习惯转移过来,却一直没有意识到你的学习方法从根本上就是不对的。

牛顿都曾将自己的成功归属于踩在巨人的肩膀上,我们又为什么不能呢?其实像任何一门技能一样,前人都为我们铺垫了很多,关于学习一门语言,来自世界各地的12位语言专家揭露了他们如何学习的秘密,我们可以站在他们的“肩膀上“来追求我们想要的结果。
Don’t Look Up Every Single Word
不要每个单词都去查
“There will be times when you’re simply dying to know the meaning of a particular word. Fine – but if you stop to look up every word, you’ll never get anywhere. Instead, only look up words that seem to be cropping up again and again – they will be the key to understanding what you’re reading.“ – Olly Richards
“有时候,你可能就是想知道一个单词的意思。但是,如果总是因为被查词打断,那么你什么效果都达不到。相反地,你只需要去查那些反复出现的单词,它们才是你理解文章的关键。“– Olly Richards
Set Specific Goals
设定明确的目标
“To be successful in learning what you need for your trip, you need as much specificity as possible. I’m lucky enough to typically have three whole months before a trip, in which I can devote most of my days to learn a language , and that makes fluency a realistic target.“ – Matt Kepnes
“如果你想要在旅行前,成功掌握一门语言,那么你这个目标就要尽可能明确。我很幸运在旅行前能空出整整三个月的时间来学习这门语言,所以,流利掌握这门语言,对我来说也成了一个可实现的目标。“ – Matt Kepnes
Act Like A Child
像孩子一样去学习
“The idea that children are inherently better learners than adults is proving to be a myth. New research cannot find a direct link between age and the ability to learn. The key to learning as quickly as a child may be to simply take on certain childlike attitudes: for instance, lack of self-consciousness, a desire to play in the language and willingness to make mistakes.“ –Matthew Youlden
孩子相比于成年人来说是更好的学习者,这已经被证明是奇谈。新的研究也没有发现年龄和学习能力之间的直接联系。所以,学习语言的关键可能就是采取孩子一样的态度,比如说,缺乏自我意识,敢于“玩语言“,敢于犯错误。
Learn The Cognates
学习同源词
“Starting to learn a language “from scratch“ is essentially impossible because of the vast amount of words you know already through cognates. Action, nation, precipitation, solution, frustration, tradition, communication, extinction, and thousands of other-tion words are spelled exactly the same in French, and you can quickly get used to the different pronunciation. Change that -tion to a-ción and you have the same words in Spanish. Italian is -zione and Portuguese is -ção.“ – Benny Lewis
“从头开始学习一门语言本质上来说已经不可能了,因为你已经通过同源词掌握了大量的单词。比如行动,国家,降水,解决方案,挫折,传统,交流,灭绝和成千上万的后缀为tion的单词在法语中拼写完全相同,你可以很快习惯不同的发音。如果将其更改为a-ción,你就可以掌握西班牙语中这些相同的单词。还有,意大利语是-zione,葡萄牙语是-ção。“ - Benny Lewis
Modal Verbs: Embracing The Infinitive
情态动词:囊括动词原形
“Learning all forms for every verb can be exhausting, especially for the dreaded imperfect or simple past. How about instead you merely learn to conjugate just seven words that will let you express almost everything you need? Sounds better, right? As a formula it looks a little like this: Subject + Verb + Object →Subject + Modal Verb + Object +Verb (infinitive)How is that helpful? Because it allows you to use all kinds of verbs in a great number of sentences without knowing how to conjugate each and every one of them. As long as you memorized how to conjugate the modal verbs, all you need is the infinitive form.“ – Nick Schaferhoff
“学习每个动词的所有形式可谓是非常累的,特别是那些恐怖的不规则过去分词和过去式。相反,如果你仅仅通过列举七个单词就可以表达你所需要的每一件事,你觉得怎么样呢?是不是听起来更好一点?这个公式基本上就是这样:从 主语+谓语+宾语到 主语+情态动词+宾语+谓语(动词原形),这样为什么会有用呢?因为你可以在大量的句子中用到各种各样的的动词,而不用去特别地区分每一个单词,只要你记住怎样使用情态动词,剩下的只需要填充动词原形。“ - Nick Schaferhoff
Learn 625 Basic Words: Using Pictures, Not Translations
学习625个基础单词:只用图片,不要翻译
“To begin any language, I suggest starting with the most common, concrete words, as they’re going to be the most optimal use of your time. This is the 80/20 Rule in action.“ – Gabriel Wyner
“不管学习哪门语言,我建议从最基础、最常用的单词学起,因为它们将是最实用的表达。这也就是所谓行动中的80/20法则“ – Gabriel Wyner
Establish Consequences
采取惩罚机制
“A lot of people fall short of their goals because there are no ramifications if they quit. Remedy the issue by committing to negative incentives (such as doing your roommate’s laundry for a month)should you fail to stick with your goals. Or, sign up for Stick K , an online service that holds money in escrow and donates it to an“ anti-charity“ of your choice if your goal isn’t met.“ – Nick English
“很多人缺乏目标,因为他们如果放弃了,就没有相应的后果。你可以通过惩罚自己来纠正这种现象(比如,为室友洗一个月衣服)。或者,可以注册Stick K(一个托管金钱的在线服务),如果你定的目标没有实现,你的钱就会被捐给“反慈善“机构。“ – Nick English
Focus On Immediate Immersion
立即深陷其中
“One of my more controversial pieces of advice, but one that I absolutely insist on when I advise beginners, is that you must speak the language right away if your goals in the target language involve speaking it.“ – Tim Ferriss
“这算是我最具争议性的一个建议,但同时也是我对初学者绝对坚持的一个建议。它就是如果你想要流利说出你想要学习的这门语言,你就敢于立即张口。“- Tim Ferriss
Be An Active Learner
成为主动学习者
“You must be an active learner. Most people allow themselves to be taught to, but you have to take an active role in asking questions. The best way to understand this process is via video“– Maneesh Sethi
“你必须成为一个积极的学习者,大部分人习惯被教导,但是你必须要学会去问问题,理解这种办法的最好途径就是通过视频来进行。“- Maneesh Sethi

Mix Old Concepts With New Ones While You’re Learning
将新旧概念结合起来学习
“It’s not as easy for adults to pick up a new language as it is for little kids with their sponge-like brains. But you can still master a new language and learn efficiently if you know how your brain works when confronted with this challenge. The science of learning a new language shares why spaced repetition is best, you should study at night, look for content in the other language in subjects you enjoy most, and why you should mix the old concepts with new ones while you’re learning.“ – Melanie Pinola
“对于成年人来说,学习一门语言并不像对于小孩子那样简单,因为孩子的大脑就像海绵一样。但是,如果你知道你的大脑在面临挑战时是怎样工作的,你依旧可以掌握一门语言,可以高效地学习。关于学习一门新语言的科学研究会告诉你,为什么间隔性重复是最好的? 你应该在晚上学习,寻找一些其他语言中你比较感兴趣的话题,同时也会告诉你为什么你应该将新旧概念结合起来。“ - 梅兰妮•皮诺拉
Let Technology Help You Out.
让技术助你一臂之力
“Dmitrochenkova has a great idea: “A funny thing like resetting the language on your phone can help you learn new words right away.“ Ditto for changing the language on your browser. Or you can seek out more structured learning opportunities online. Dutch translator Els DeKeyser recommends Anki for memorizing vocabulary with its‘ intelligent’ flashcards“ – Krystian Aparta
“Dmitrochenkova有一个比较好的想法:比如重置你的手机语言,这样就会让你立马学到新单词。同时呢,也要更改你的浏览器语言,或者寻找一些结构化的线上学习。荷兰语翻译Els DeKeyser推荐Anki使用“智能“闪卡来记单词。“– Krystian Aparta
Conversation, Conversation, Conversation.
开口,说话,交流
“If there’s a “secret“ or “hack“ to learning a new language, it’s this: hours and hours of awkward and strenuous conversation with people better than you in that language. An hour of conversation is as good as five hours in a classroom and10 hours with a language course by yourself.“ – Mark Manson
如果说关于学习有一个秘诀或者“黑客“,那就是在与比你更精通你要学习的那门语言的人交流时,你要面临时时刻刻的尴尬。一个小时的交流堪比你在教室学习五小时,独自学习十小时。
好啦,这么多方法,总有一款适合你,如果你朋友也在学习外语,记得分享给人家啊啊啊啊!