首尔公车上立“慰安妇”少女像以铭记历史

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2017-8-23 16:20

近日,一公交车公司在韩国首尔公交车上放置了“慰安妇“少女像,用以提醒人们铭记历史。此举得到首尔市长的支持,但日本对此表示不满。“慰安妇“问题是韩日两国尚未完全解决的战争遗留问题。2015年,两国签订了相关条约,但因种种原因未能完全落实。此前,“慰安妇“少女像在韩国国内国外均有放置,并引发韩日两国外交摩擦和韩国社会争议。

Buses in Seoul install 'comfort women' statues to honour former sex slaves
首尔公车上立“慰安妇“少女像以铭记历史

Statues installed on five buses with the support of the Seoul mayor – although use of public space to highlight this wartime atrocity has angered Japan
在首尔市长的支持下,五辆公交车上放置了“慰安妇“少女像,虽然这种利用公共场合提醒人们勿忘战争暴行的做法引发日本不满。

seoul
Buses serving several routes in central Seoul have acquired a new and highly controversial passenger: a barefoot “comfort woman“, wearing a traditional hanbok dress with her hands resting on her knees.
在首尔中央固定运营的几辆公交车迎来了一位颇具争议的乘客:身穿韩服、未着鞋履、双手叠放在膝盖上的“慰安妇“。

Appearing on the front seat of buses in the South Korean capital earlier this week, the statues were installed by the Dong-A Transit company as a potent reminder of an unresolved wartime atrocity whose roots lie in Japan’s 1910-1945 occupation of the Korean peninsula.
本周,韩国东亚运输公司在首尔公交车前坐上安置了“慰安妇“少女像,想要提醒人们勿忘1910年至1945年日本占领朝鲜半岛时犯下的战争罪行。这些罪行目前仍未得到妥善解决。

The term “comfort women“ is a euphemism for as many as 200,000 girls and young women, mostly from the Korean peninsula, who were coerced into working in Japanese frontline brothels before and during the second world war.
“慰安妇“是一种委婉表述,指二战前期与中期,20万名被强征进日军前线妓所的年轻女性与女童,其中大部分人来自朝鲜半岛。

“It is designed to remind South Koreans of suffering the women went through,“ said Rim Jin-wook, the head of Dong-A Transit, the bus company behind the statue passengers.
这条公交路线运营方、东亚运输公司的代表林真煜表示,“雕像的设计初衷就是为了提醒韩国人勿忘这些女性曾经遭遇的苦痛与折磨“。

Seoul’s mayor has supported the scheme, which will run to the end of September, by riding on one of the buses and saying it was an “opportunity to pay tribute to the victims“.
活动将持续到九月底。首尔市长很支持该活动,他搭乘了其中一辆公交车,并表示这是一个“缅怀受害者的机会“。

However, the use of public spaces to highlight such a controversial issue has sparked criticism in Japan, which claims that the statues contravene the spirit of a 2015 agreement that was supposed to settle the comfort women controversy “finally and irreversibly“.
然而,日本对这一利用公共场合,大肆声张争议话题的行为大加斥责,并宣称这些少女像的设立与2015年协议的精神相悖,该协议本该“一劳永逸“的解决“慰安妇“问题。

The agreement included an apology for the women’s ordeal, but Japan refused to accept legal responsibility, maintaining its official position that all compensation claims were settled by a bilateral peace treaty in 1965. In addition, Tokyo committed to setting up a $9mn fund to care for the dwindling number of surviving sex slaves.
协议还包括向这些遭受折磨的女性道歉,但是日本拒绝承担法律责任,官方仍坚称1965年签订双边和平协定时,所有索赔均已解决。此外,东京方面同意为仍幸存的受害者设立900万美元的基金,这些受害者人数在不断减少。

In return, the countries agreed to refrain from criticising each other over wartime sexual slavery at international forums.
相应的,日韩双方同意不在国际论坛就日本战争期间的性奴役行径相互批评。

But the biggest obstacle to fully implementing the agreement is a Japanese demand that the South Korean government order the removal of comfort women statues across the country.

但彻底落实协议面临的最大障碍是,日方要求韩国政府下令撤下境内所有慰安妇雕像。

One particularly contentious sculpture has been outside the Japanese embassy in Seoul since 2011. Former sex slaves and campaigners caused a major diplomatic spat in 2011 when they installed a bronze life-sized statue, similar to the plastic iterations that have now appeared on buses, and placed it in direct view of diplomats and embassy workers.
2011年放置于日本驻韩国大使馆门前的雕像是最具争议性的。那年,慰安妇受害者与抗议人士放置了真人大小的铜像,引发了两国极大外交摩擦。现在公交车上的塑胶制等身少女像也是如此,由于该公交线路途经日本驻韩大使馆和日本文化院一带,使馆的外交官与工作人员可以直接看到这些雕像。

It was designed by artists Kim Seo-kyung and Kim Eun-sung, who told CNN that they had created the memorial to mark the 1,000th demonstration by surviving comfort women outside the embassy, which have been taking place every Wednesday 8 January since 1992.
设计者金运成、金曙炅夫妇接受CNN采访时表示,他们曾为第1000次日本大使馆前抗议纪念活动制作少女像。自1992年1月8日起,每周三都会有受害者前来集会抗议。

The most controversial “comfort woman“ statue outside South Korea is one that sits in Glendale, California, erected in 2013. In April this year, the US supreme court denied a review of a controversial case seeking its removal, ending a tense three-year debate by local residents Michiko Shiota Gingery and Koichi Mera, who were hoping to “defend the honour of Japan“ by having it taken down.
韩国外最具争议性的“慰安妇“人像位于加利福尼亚州的格兰岱尔市,于2013年立起。今年4月,美国最高法院否决一争议诉讼,保留了慰安妇人像,结束了由当地居民Michiko Shiota Gingery和Koichi Mera发起的持续了3年之久的激烈争论,她们希望拆除人像,“保卫日本的荣誉“。

In South Korea, with only an estimated 37 “comfort women“ survivors left, local communities are now stepping up their campaigns to give more visibility to the women in cities across the country, to complement their standing within the country’s political firmament.
据估计,韩国仅剩37名“慰安妇“幸存者,当地社区如今正采取行动让这些妇女为全国各地的人们所知,以提高她们在韩国政治领域的存在感。

In addition to installing statues on five of the city’s buses, there are plans to make every 14 August a national day of remembrance and to open a museum dedicated to the comfort women in 2020.
除了将人像放置在5辆公交车上,韩国还计划将每年8月14日定为国家纪念日,并计划于2020年为慰安妇建立博物馆。

The bus statues will stay in place until the end of September before going on permanent display in public spaces around the country.
公交车上的少女像会展至九月底,随后会在全国各地的公共场所进行永久展览。

According to the Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, nine new statues were due to be placed in locations in Seoul and other cities by the time South Korea celebrated the anniversary of its liberation from Japanese colonial rule this week, bringing the total number in South Korea to about 80.
据韩国受害慰安妇援助团体“挺身队问题对策协议会“(the Korean Council for Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan)表示,本周韩国解放周年纪念日结束后,将有9座新的人像被安放在首尔和其他城市,届时韩国的慰安妇人像数量将会达到80座。

“It’s so heartbreaking to see this girl statue, partly because she looks about my age,“ Jennifer Lee, a 19-year-old passenger, told AFP. “It horrifies me just to imagine what these women went through.“
“这个少女像太令人心痛了,原因之一是,她看起来就跟我差不多大,“19岁的乘客詹妮弗·李在接受法新社采访时如是说道,“单是想象这些女人的遭遇就让我感到可怕。“