2016-6-20 11:52


Conversation One:
W: So Mike, you managed the innovation project at Two Santack.
M: I did indeed.
W: Well then, first congratulations. It seems to have been very successful.
M: Thanks, yes.I really help things turn around at Two Santact.
W: What is the revival in their fortune? Did it highly do to a strategic situation?
M: Yes, yes I think it was. Santack was a company was much following a pack, doing everyone else was doing.I getting rapidly left behind.I could see there were a lot of talent there and some great potential.Particularly in their product development.I just harness that some help.
W: Was the innovation the core of the project?
M: Absolutely, if it doesn’t sound like too much cliché.Our world is constantly changing and changing quickly.Mini to be innovating constantly to keep up with this.Standstill, you stop.
W: No stop for sneaking the roses?
M: Well, I will do that my personal life sure.But as a business strategy, I’m afraid there is no stopping.
W: What exactly is the strategic innovation then?
M: Strategic innovation is the process of managing innovation of making sure to take place all levels of the company and that is related to the company’s overall strategy.
W: I see.
M: So, instead of innovation for innovation sake and new products being simply because of the technology is there, the company culture must switch from these pointing time innovations to continue high innovation from everywhere and everyone.
W: How did you alliance strategy throughout the company?
M: I soon became aware of the complaint useless.People take no notice.Simply it came about through the practice trickling down.This up and set.People could see it was the best work.
W: Does innovation on a scale really give competitive advantage?
M: I am certain of it.Absolutely.Especially it was difficult for a copy.The risk is the core that the innovation to limitation.
W: But now is it strategic?
M: precisely.
W: Thanks for talking to us.
M: Sure.
1.What seems to have been very successful according to the woman speaker?
2.What did the company lack before the company was implemented?
3.What did the man say he should do in his business?
4.What does the man say is the risk of the innovation?
conversation 2
M:Today my guest is Dana who has worked for the last twenty years as an interpreter.Dana, welcome.
W:Thank you.
M:Now,I’d like to begin by saying that I have on the occasions used an interpreter myself as a foreign correspondent. So I’m full of memo rations for what youdo.6.But I think your profession is sometimes underrated and many people think anyone who speaks more than one language can do it.
W:There are any interpreters I know who don’t have professional qualifications and training. You only really get profession after many years in the job.
M:And say you can divide what you do into two distinct methods simultaneous and consecutive interpreting.
W:That’sright.7.The techniques you use are different. And a lot of interpreters would say one is easier than the other,less stressful.
M:Simultaneous interpreting, putting someone’s words into another language more or less as they speak, sounds to me like the more difficult.
W:Well,actually no.8.Most people in the business would agree that consecutive interpreting is the more stressful. You have to wait for the speaker to deliver quite a chunk of language before you then put it into the second language which puts your short term memory under in tense stress.
M:You might know presumably?
W:Absolutely. Anything like numbers, names, places have to be noted down, but the rest is never translated word for word. You have found the way of summarizing it. So that the messages are there, turning every single word into the target language would put too much strain on the interpreter and slow down the whole process too much.
M:But while simultaneous interpreting you start translating almost as soon as the
other person starts speaking, you must have some preparation beforehand.
W:Well,hopefully, the speakers will outline of the topic a day or two in advance, you have a low time to do research prepare technical expressions and so on
Q:5.Whatare the speakers mainly talking about?
6.Whatdoes the man think of Dana’s profession?
7.Whatis Dana say about the interpreters she knows?
8.Whatdo most of interpreters think of consecutive interpreting?
Section B

Passage 1
Mothers have been warned for years that sleeping with their new born infant is a bad idea because it increases the risk that the baby might die unexpectedly during the night.But now Israeli researchers are reporting that even sleeping in the same room can have negative consequences, not for the child, but for the mother.Mothers who slept in the same room with their infants, whether in the same bed or just the same room, have poor sleep the mother whose baby slept else where in the house.They woke up more frequently or awake approximately 20 minutes longer per night and have shorter period of uninterrupted sleep.These results how true even taking into account that many of the women in the study were breast-feeding their babies. Infants, on the other hand, didn’t appear to have worse sleep whether they slept in the same or different room from their mothers. The researchers acknowledge that since the families they studied were all middle classes Israelis.It is possible that the results will be different in different cultures. Lead author TTTT wrote in an email that the research team also didn’t measure father sleep.So it is possible that patterns could also be causing the sleep disruptions for mums. Right now, to reduce the risk of sudden infant death in the room, the American Academy of PD recommends the mothers not sleep in the same bed with their babies, but sleep in the same room. The Israeli study suggests that doing so, may be best for the baby, but may take at all on mum.
9What is the long health view about the mother sleeping with new-born babies?
10 What do Israeli researchers’ findings show?
11What does the American Academy’s PD recommend mothers do?
The US has already lost more than a third of the native languages that existed before European colonization and the remaining 192 are classed by the UNESCO as ranging between unsafe and extinct. “We need more funding and more effort to return these languages to everyday use,“ says Fred Nowosky of the National museum of the American Indians, “we are making progress, but money needs to be spent on revitalizing languages, not just documenting them.“ Some reported languages mainly in California and Oklahoma where thousands of Indians were forced to relocate in the 19th century have fewer than 10 native speakers.Part of the issue is that tribal groups themselves don‘t always believe their languages are endangered until they are down to the last handful of speakers.“But progress is being made through emerging schools, because if you teach children when they are young, it will stay with them as adults and that is the future.“ says Fred Nowosky. Such schools have become a model in Hawaii, but the islanders’ native language are still classed by the UNESCO as critically endangered because only 1000 people speak it.The decline in the American African languages has historical roots.In the mid 19th century, the US government adopted a policy of Americanizing Indian children by removing them from their homes and cultures. Within a few generations, most have forgotten their native tongues. Another challenge to language survival is television. It has brought English into homes, and pushed out traditional storytelling and family time together, accelerating the extinction of native languages.
Questions 12-15 are based on the passage you just heard.
12.What can we learn from the report?
13.For what purpose does Fred Nowosky appeal from the funding?
14.What is the historical cause of the decline of the American Indian Languages?
15.What does the speaker say about television?
Section C

Lecture one
Gragroszen lost her job as a sales manager nearly three years ago. And it is still unemployed. It is literally like something a dream to remember what it is like to actually be able to go out and it puts the days to work and receive a day pay
At first Rosen made house payments with the help unemployment insurance.it pays late of workers to have their previous wages law they look for work.But now the insurance has run out for him and it has to make tough choices.He comes back on medications and he no longer support his disabled mother.It is devastating experiences.New researchers says the US recession that is now over.But many people remain unemployed and unemployed workers face difficult odds.There is literally only one job opening for every five unemployed workers.So Four out of five workers have no chance of finding job.Business have down-sized or shutdown across America, leading fewer job opportunities for those in search of work.Experts who monitor unemployed statistic in box Pennsylvania say about twenty-eight thousand people are unemployed and many of them are jobless do to no force of their own.
Local directer Elizabeth says they provide trading guidance to help find local job opportunity.So here is job opening .Here is job seeker.But the lack of work opportunities limit how much she can help.Rosen says he hopes congress will take action.This month, he launched the nineteen unions and organizations of eighteen internet based grass root gross groups
Their goal is to convince law makers to extend unemployed benefits.But Pennsylvania says government simply do not have enough money to extend unemployment insurance. He thinks the best way to help long-term unemployed is to allow local company that can create more jobs .But the boost investigator for the plan to work will take time that Rosen says requires food and payments .Rosen says who uses the last stating to try to hang on to he worked for more than twenty years to buy.But one study is gone .He doesn’t know what hell do
16 how does the unemployment insurance help the unemployed?
17.What is the local director Elizabeth of the box county careering doing?
18.What does Pennsylvania state representative say is the best way to help long-term unemployed?
Lecture 2:
W:19.Earlier this year, British explorers Pen Huddle and his team tried three months to cross the frozen Arctic ocean taking measurements and recording observations about the ice.
M:While we have been believed that we would be in account of a good proportion of this older, thicker, technically multi-year ice that has been around for a few years and just get thicker and thicker.we actually find there wasn’t any multi-year ice at all.
W: Some observations and summering service over the past several years has shown less ice in the polar region.20.But the recent measurements show the lost is more pronounced than the previous thought.
M:We are looking at roughly 80 percent loss of ice cover on the Arctic ocean in ten years, roughly ten years and 100 percent loss in nearly twenty years.Cambridge Scientist Peter Whitens who is measuring the findings that in the summer season .21.But research management shows the lost of than previous thought. We are roughly looking at the percent ice cover for ten years, roughly ten years about 100 percent invisible. The more you lose, the more you created during the summit. The less forms in winter, the following in summer. It comes down brain successes until it has gone environmental treaty worldwide like fun.The artists say ice in the symptom fast than expected. Actually, it has to translate into more urgency to deal with climate changing problems and reduce emissions. Greenhouse emissions blame for global warming needs to come out the by the change summit in December.we have basically achieved there, to communicate the deal. That’s the minimum.
M:We has to do that incredibly.And that we have to find the equipment .What the needs urgency The carbon we produce into the atmosphere keeps the warming fire for 1000 years.22.So we have to come back the rapidly now. Because it takes a long time to work it through into our response by the atmosphere. We cannot switch off global warming. We have to stop being good in the near future.We had to now.There is not easy technological What is more easy to climate change.He and other scientists said there are the two optional to replace the fasten fuels.Generally, energy with the global warming in nuclear power.
Q19: What did Pen Huddle and his team do in the Arctic Ocean?
Q20: What does the report say about the Arctic region?
Q21: What does Cambridge scientist Peter Whitens say in his study?
Q22: How these Peter Whitens view common change?
Lecture 3
From a very early age, some children exhibit better self-control than others.Now, a new study began with 1,000 children in New Zealand tracked how low self-control can predict poor health, money troubles and even a criminal record in their adult years. Researchers has been studying the group of children for decades now.Some of the early observations have to do with the level of self-control the youngsters displayed parents, teachers, even the kids themselves, scored the youngsters on measures like “acting before thinking“ and “persistence in reaching goals.“ The children of the study are now adults in their thirties.Terrie Moffitt of Duke University and her research colleague found that kids with self-control issues tended to grow up to become adults with a far more troubling set of issues to deal with.“The children who had the lowest self-control when they were age three to 10, later on had the most health problems in their thirties,“ Moffitt said, “and they had the worst financial situation.They were more likely to have a criminal record and to be raising a child as a single parent on a very low income.““Even the children who had above-average self-control as pre-schoolers, could have benefited from more self-control training.They could have improved their financial situation and their physical and mental health situation 30 years later.“So, children with minor self-control problems were likely as adults to have minor health problems, and so on.Moffitt said it‘s still unclear why some children have better self-control than others, though other researchers have found that it’s mostly a learned behavior, with relatively little genetic influence.But good self-control can run in families because children with good self-control are more likely to grow up to be healthy and prosperous parents.“Whereas some of the low-self-control study members are more likely to be single parents with a very low income and the parent is in poor health and likely to be a heavy substance abuser,“ said Moffitt.“So that‘s not a good atmosphere for a child.So it looks as though self-control is something that in one generation can disadvantage the next generation.“But the good news, according to Moffitt, is that self-control can be taught by parents, and through school curricula that have been shown to be effective.But the good news is the Moffitt says that self-control can be taught by the parents and through school curricula that have proved to be effective.Terry Moffitt’s paper on the link on self-control and adult status is later is published proceeding the academy of sciences.
23.What is the new study about?
24.What does the study seem to show?
25.What does Moffitt say is the good news to the study?