为了让学生们在开始工作之前就对口译的几大应用领域都有接近实际的经 历，知道需要如何准备，如何应付，本教材36个练习单元的内容全部采用政府政策宣传讲话，高级官员对外讲话，中国和英国的招商推介，以及英、美大公司的介 绍。这些都是实际口译工作中需求增长最快、最需要专业技能的领域。
（英）林超伦， 自1995年以来，林超伦先生一直担任英国女王、首相和议会上下两院领导人与中国高层领导人的会谈口译。他曾于1998年和2003年两次陪同布莱尔首相 访华，并且以英国政府译员的身份，参加接待了近年来所有访问英国的中国领导人。英国主要对华组织英中贸易协会、英国文化委员会、英中友好协会以及英国著名 的公司和组织也多次聘请他担任重大活动的口译。 林超伦先生还负责英国首相府和外交部的文件翻译，并经常为各大公司翻译宣传资料、广告及品牌、法律和技术文件。林超伦先生以其优秀的翻译质量和丰富的口译 经验在口译界享有良好的声誉。
Standard Chartered is the world's leading emerging market bank. It employs 29,000 people in over 500 offices in more than 50 countries in the Asia Pacific Region, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, United Kingdom and the Americas. Our global headquarters is in London. The Bank serves both Consumer and Wholesale Banking customers. The Consumer Bank provides credit cards, personal loans, mortgages, deposit taking activity and wealth management services to individuals and medium-sized businesses.
The Wholesale Bank provides services to multinational, regional and domestic corporate and institutional clients in trade finance, cash management, custody, lending, foreign exchange, interest rate management and debt capital markets. Like all companies we are operating in a climate of massive change. We are therefore developing new strategies to ensure that our business keeps abreast of the moves to apply the principles of Corporate Social Responsibility.
Standard Chartered recognizes its responsibilities to its staff and to the communities in which it operates. We believe that with appropriate policies and practices in place we can be a legitimate influence for good by promoting the best standards of socially responsible business in the developing world. By doing so we hope to stimulate positive change and greater engagement. Standard Chartered strives to operate in a manner that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, commercial and public expectations of society.
Our objective is to benefit all of our stakeholders including our shareholders, customers, staff and the communities in which we operate. We strongly support the trend towards delivering shareholder value in a socially, ethically and environmentally responsible manner. We also believe that improved transparency through reporting and improved engagement through dialogue offers clear benefits, not only for society, but also for Standard Chartered.
A responsible organization will be better able to attract and retain its customers, employees, shareholders and suppliers. It will operate with greater cohesion and clearer focus. It will be better able to listen and respond rapidly to changing needs and markets. Responsibility, dialogue, action and reporting are the key elements in a virtuous circle through which everyone benefits. We are proud to promote our support for Corporate Social Responsibility.
Standard Chartered offers personal financial solutions relevant to you as an individual. Some of these include priority banking, credit card, insurance, personal investment as well as deposit and retail services. We treasure building a relationship with you, developing an understanding of your changing financial needs at different stages of your life. Our long heritage of nearly 150 years has enabled us to change with time, offering quality products by means that are convenient to you.
Business Financial Services offer one of the widest ranges of banking products and services in the market today. Managing a growing business demands most of your time and energy. That is why working with the right bank can help your business sail more smoothly. Corporate & Institutional banking provides cash management, custody and trade finance services. We offer a one-stop risk management solution to our customers--the local corporate, multinational companies, investment and financial institutions, and central banks.
Corporate & Institute banking provides cash management, custody and trade finance services through our strong market networks in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. We provide a bridge to these markets for clients from the U.S and Europe. With 150 years in the emerging markets the Bank has unmatched knowledge and understanding of its customers in its markets.
The problem we are facing is structural, and very acute. Domestic oil supply is increasingly falling behind demand. Imports are increasing every year. The proportion of natural gas in our primary energy consumption has fallen well below the world average. There is very little clean and highly efficient energy. It does not meet the requirements of energy efficiency and environmental protection.
The energy industry still works with outdated technology and equipment. There is much room for improvement in safe production practices. In the next ten years, or even more, Chinese economy will continue to grow at about 7% per annum. Comprehensive energy and power consumption are expected to grow at 3% and 6% respectively.
As our economy continues to grow, as standards of living continue to rise, as environmental protection improves, the demands for energy development are reaching a new level. The Chinese government faces a major issue. That is to achieve sustainable energy development and to balance energy production and consumption with the environment and society.
To meet the demand for sustainable social and economic development, the Chinese government will continue with its policy of "developing energy and at the same time saving it, with the saving taking priority". We will take advantage of our rich resources, optimize our energy structure, and improve energy efficiency and environmental protection.
During the Tenth Five-Year period, China will rely primarily on coal and will increase the use of high quality coal. We will reform large-scale mines and develop high output and high efficiency mines. We will develop coal bed resources and increase our efforts in the research and development of clean coal technology. We will work on oil and gas simultaneously, speeding up our exploitation and use of natural gas, increasing its use in our energy consumption.
We need to pay attention to wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, and other new and renewable energy sources. We are aiming to quadruple the annual exploitation of new and renewable energy sources by 2005 from 3 million tons of standard coal to 13 million tons of standard coal. We will improve our ability to save energy and promote integrated applications. We aim to reduce our unit consumption per ten thousand yuan GDP to 2.2 tons of standard coal in 2005.
China and the European Union have enjoyed 20 years of good relations in the energy area. Germany has world-class technology in the development of new energy and in environmental protection. We welcome German companies to invest in the development and application of energy sources, particularly the application of new energy sources in China. After WTO entry, we will open up our energy market wider and further.
There are a whole range of large-scale projects such as the Three Gorges Power Station, "Western Gas Going East" and "Western Electricity Going East". They will create more opportunities for cooperation in the energy field between China and Germany. We would like to work with Germany, to strengthen cooperation on the basis of many years of joint efforts. Thank you.
Prudential was founded in 1848, as the Prudential Mutual Assurance, Investment and Loan Association in London. The company grew from a small life assurance company, with a customer base limited to the well-off middle classes, to Britain's largest life company by number of policy-holders. In 1854 Prudential opened its industrial department and began to sell "penny policies" that could be afforded by poorer people.
The department really began to expand in 1856 when the company pioneered infantile insurance, allowing parents to insure the lives of children under the age of ten. By keeping statistical records about policy-holders, Prudential was able to calculate accurate premium rates and improve the benefits payable on policies. By the turn of the century one third of the population was insured with "the Pru". By the mid-1870s, the company started to employ lady clerks and use "modern" calculators and typewriters.
By 1900 there were nearly 15,000 agents collecting Prudential premiums. Until 1915 Prudential sold life assurance only. In 1915 the range of business was extended with the opening of the general branch, through which fire, accident, marine and other forms of insurance were sold from 1919 onwards. During the 1920s Prudential began to expand overseas and agencies were set up all over the world to sell Prudential policies.
In Britain, new policies were introduced for women, family protection and long term saving opportunities. In the post war period the range of Prudential's products changed towards an emphasis on savings, annuities, pensions and family income protection. In the 1970s a number of acquisitions were made and in 1978 Prudential Corporation was set up as the holding company for the group. The focus on adopting new sales and marketing techniques to promote products dominated the 1980s.
The sales force was restructured to deal better with customer needs and new channels of communication were opened through telephone sales and Independent Financial Advisers. In 1986, Prudence was launched as the new image for Prudential Corporation, the traditional values of the company presented in a modern forward-looking way. The 1990s saw further diversification of products and methods of communication.
Sales by telephone and through IFAs have gradually reduced the role of direct sales in customer's home. In 1997 Scottish Amicable was acquired, strengthening Prudential's position in the IFA sector. The launch of Egg in 1998 saw Prudential use a new distribution channel, targeting the Internet generation. The acquisition of M&G, the fund managers, in 1999 strengthened the Group's investment portfolio. In recent years Prudential has expended in key markets, principally the United States and Asia.
Prudential Corporation Asia has operational businesses in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, India, China, Vietnam and the Philippines. New business ventures have been established in Japan and Korea in the last year. In the Unites States, Prudential's subsidiary, Jackson National Life is represented in all states and distributes products through independent agents as well as financial institutions and broker-dealers. The extent of the importance of international business can be seen by the fact that over 50% of the group's sales are international.
Prudential's history has been about change and innovation. Throughout its history Prudential has had to survive in difficult markets where other businesses folded. It recognized that it had to grasp the difficulties of communicating the value of its products to differing and diverse markets through periods of great political and social change. The development of new products and the emergence of new markets have established Prudential as a significant player in the world of international retail financial services.