初中英语名词专项讲解

作者:admin

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2012-2-20 11:45

名词

在中考单项选择试题中,除了时态,名词的考查频率也较高。一般考查以下几点:

一、可数名词与不可数名词

在可数名词与不可数名词上一般出现这样几类,(1)分辨是哪一类名词,并根据结论做选择。(2)可数名词复数的不规则变化。(3)不可数名词的量化表达。所以,考生首先要能够明确哪些是可数名词,哪些是不可数名词。其次,还要知道可数名词的复数的变化规则。可数名词的变化规则一般是在单词后面加-s 或-es,如:
1 desk---desks bed---beds piano---pianos
hat---hats bag---bags photo---photos

2 bus---buses box---boxes
watch---watches brush---brushes

3 tomato---tomatoes potato---potatoes
hero---heroes Negro---Negroes

4 leaf---leaves knife---knives
5baby---babies family---families

另外,还要记住一些特殊的名词的变化形式,如:

Chinese---Chinese Japanese---Japanese
Englishman---Englishmen Frenchman---Frenchmen
Russian---Russians American---Americans
German --- Germans
child---children foot---feet
man---men woman---women
tooth---teeth goose --- geese
deer---deer sheep---sheep

还要掌握不可数名词的量化表达有: a piece of、a bag of、a bottle of、a cup of、a glass of

另外,大家应注意:单数集合名词作主语时谓语动词“数的“变化:单数集合名词如class, police, family, school, group, team等。尽管形式上是单数,意义上都是复数,因此,一般要与复数谓语动词连用,例如:

Class Five have a foreign friend.
五班有一位外国朋友。(这里的五班指五班的同学的。)

His family are good to me. 他的家人对我很好。(很显然,这里的family指家庭成员。)当上述集合名词着重指“整体“时, 意义上则是单数,因此,要与单数谓语动词连用。例如,

Our school team often plays well in our city.
我们的校队经常在我们市踢得很好。(这里的team 指整个队,但意义上仍为单数,故谓语动词用plays.

二、 名词所有格

名词所有格有两种形式:一是加’s,一种是用of来表示。一般情况下,指某人的某物用’s表示,而指某物的什么用of 短语来表示。另外,要注意凡是以s结尾的名词或规则名词的复数,不能直接加’s,而应该加-’即可。例如,boys’ clothes girls’ dresses。 不过,注意例外情况,例如, the boss’s handwriting,其中the boss’s 的-’s不可省略。因为在英语中,如果以-s 或-ss 结尾的名词不是复数复数形式,那么其名词所有格仍加-‘s。那么你会说“琼斯的小汽车“吗?对,Jones’s car。

下面我们来做一部分习题。
1. June 1st is ___ Day.
A. Child’s B. Childs’ C. Childrens’ D. Children’s
答案:D

2. I need ___ paper, Mum. I want to write ___ letter to my English teacher.
A. any, some B. some, a C. a, some D. some,any
答案:B

3. There are two ___ and three ___ on the table.
A. knifes, forks B. knifes, fork C. knives, forkes D. knives, forks
答案:D

4. We have got a lot of___ today.
A. newspaper to read B. homework to do C. homeworks to do
D. book to read
答案:B

5. We could see __ children and hear ___ noise in the park.
A. many, many B. much, much C. many, much D. much, many
答案:C

6. Will you pass me ___?
A. a few pieces of chalk B. a few chalks C. a few of chalks
D. some chalks
答案:A

7. ___ has been invited to the dancing party.
A. A friend of her B. A friend of hers C. Friends of hers
D. Friends of her
答案:B

下面请大家自己练习一下。

1. September 10th is ___ Day.
A. the Teacher B. Teachers’ C. Teacher D. Teacher’s
答案:B

2. ---Can I help you, sir?
---I’d like to have 100___. I want the students to draw pictures on them.
A. piece of paper B. pieces of paper C. papers D. paper
答案:B

3. ---Would you like ___ milk, please?
---No, thank you. I still have some.
A. some more B. an C. a little of D. all
答案:A

4. ___ the old woman is in!
A. What good health B. How a good health C. What a good health D. How good health
答案:A

① What + a(n) + 形容词 + 单数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
② What + 形容词 + 复数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
③ What + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
④ How + 形容词/副词 + 主语 + 谓语!
⑤ How + 形容词 + a(n) + 名词 + 主语 + 谓语!
⑥ How + 主语 + 谓语!

5. I’m going to help ___ with ___ English.
A. a friend of Nancy, hers B. a friend of Nancy’s, her
C. a friend of Nancy’s, hers D. a friend of Nancy, her
答案:B

6. The two desks here are ___. You may use the desk over there.
A. Mary and Jane B. Marys and Janes C. Mary and Jane’s
D. Mary’s and Jane’s
答案:D

名词是中考必考知识点之一,关于它们其它考法这里提的不多,只提比较常见的考试题型。在平时训练过程中发现学生知道的比较多,但做题时比较疑惑。因此只有多做题,多训练才可能学生记住(相对于很差的学生而言)