Jeans are pants, or trousers, made from denim. Mainly designed for work, they became popular among teenagers starting in the 1950s. Historic brands include Levi’s and Wrangler.
Jeans are now a very popular form of casual dress around the world, and have been so for decades. They come in many styles and colors; however, “blue jeans“ are particularly identified with American culture, especially the American Old West. The American population spent more than $14 billion on jeans in 2004.
从几十年前开始到现在，牛仔裤一直是世界上非常流行的休闲 装款式。它们有多种款式和颜色,其中“蓝色牛仔裤“被认为是最具 美国特色（特别是美国老西部)。2004年,美国人在牛仔裤上的花费舰了 140fc美元。
Trousers made from corduroy or canvas are sometimes incorrectly called jeans. However, traditionally the word “jeans“ referred to trousers made exclusively out of denim.
The word “jeans“ comes from the French phrase bleu de Genes, literally the blue of Genoa. Jeans fabric, or denim, originated independently iu two places: the French town of Nimes, to which “denim“ owes its name; and in India, where trousers made of denim material were worn by the sailors of Dhunga, which came to be known as dungarees.
“牛仔裤“一词源自法语短语bleu de Gbes,字面上的意思是 热那亚蓝色。牛仔布起源于两个不同的地方:一是法国城镇Nimes， “denim“一词里包含了它的名字,二是印度,在那里Dhunga的水手穿牛仔布做的裤子，那种裤子后来被称为粗棉布工装裤。
At around the same time, denim trousers were made in Chieri, a town near Turin (Italy), during the Renaissance, and were popularised in the 16th century. These trousers were sold through the harbour of Genoa, which was the capital of the independent Republic of Genoa.
大约在同一时期，都灵(意大利）附近的一个名为Chieri的小镇 在文艺复兴时期制作牛仔布裤子，并在16世纪开始流行。这些裤子 在热那亚港出售，那里是独立的热那亚共和国的首都。
Early examples of these trousers were made for the Genoese Navy, which required all-purpose pants for its sailors. They required pants that could be worn wet or dry, the legs of which could easily be rolled up to wear while swabbing the deck. These jeans were laundered by dragging them in large mesh nets behind the ship, and the exposure to sea water and sun would gradually bleach them to white. They were especially worn by Genoese sailors and stevedores who woriced in France.
这种裤子早期的款式是为热那亚海军而设计的,因为他们需要 多功能的水手裤子。他们需要在潮湿和干燥情况下都能穿的长裤， 裤子的裤脚也要方便卷起以便他们在甲板上打扫。这些牛仔裤被扔 在大渔网里拖在船后面用海水清洗,在阳光的直接暴晒下,它们渐 渐被漂成白色。它们是热那亚水手和法国码头工人的服装。
Initially, blue jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by workers, especially in the factories during World War n. During this period, men’s jeans had the zipper down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the zipper down the right side. By the 1960s, both men’s and women's jeans had the zipper down the front.
After James Dean popularized them in the movie, Rebel Without a Cause, wearing blue jeans by teenagers and young adults became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. Because of this, they were sometimes banned in theaters, restaurants and schools.
During the 1960s the wearing of blue jeans became more acceptable. By the 1970s they had become a general fashion in the United States, at least for informal wear.
20世纪60年代,蓝色牛仔裤开始被更多的人接受。到了 20世纪70年代,牛仔裤——至少作为非 正式服装，已经成为美国大众的潮流。
Notably, in the mid-1970s the denim and textiles industry was revolutionized by the introduction of the stone-washing technique by GWG (Great Western Garment Co.), Entrepreneur, importer, and noted eccentric Donald Freeland of Edmonton, Alberta pioneered the method, which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market. Denim suddenly became an attractive product for all age groups and Freeland became one of the most important innovators in the history of denim and denim products. Acceptance of jeans continued through the 1980s and 1990s to the point where jeans are now a wardrobe staple, with the average North American owning seven pairs.
值得注意的是,在70年代中期，西部大制衣有限公司的石洗技术的引进使得牛仔布和纺织工 业发生了革命性的变化。创业家、进口商、艾伯塔省埃德蒙顿的唐纳德*弗里兰率先使用该方法，它有助于牛仔布获得更大更灵活的市场。牛仔布突然成为了对所有年龄阶层都有吸引力的产品， 而弗里兰也成为了牛仔布和牛仔布产品发展史上最重要的创新者之一。牛仔裤在20世纪80年代和90年代继续为人们所接受,现在牛仔裤是衣柜里的主要产品,北美人均拥有7条牛仔裤。
Jeans can be worn very loose in a manner that completely conceals the shape of the wearer’s lower body, or they can be snugly fitting and accentuate the body. Historic photographs indicate that in the decades before they became a staple of fashion, jeans generally fit quite loosely, much like a pair of bib overalls without the bib. Indeed, until I960, Levi Strauss denominated its flagship product “waist overalls“ rather than “jeans".
牛仔裤既可以穿得非常宽松,掩盖穿着的人下半身的形状,也可以穿得贴身凸显穿着的人的 身材。历史照片表明，在几十年前,在它们还没有成为时尚之前,牛仔裤一般穿得很宽松,像没有围 裙上部的围裙工装裤。事实上，在1960年以前,利瓦伊?斯特劳斯一直将他的旗舰产品命名为“齐腰工装裤“而不是“牛仔裤“。