As regards checked baggage or cargo, the passenger or shipper shall have the right of action against the first carrier, and the passenger or consignee shall have the right of action against the last carrier, and further, each may take action against the carrier who performed the part of transport during which the destruction, loss, damage, or delay took place.
These carriers shall be jointly and severally liable to the passenger or to the shipper or consignee.
Section 4 Special Provisions Governing Air Transport Performed by Ac Carrier
Article 137 Contracting carrier referred to in this Section means any person who has concluded a contract of transport by air subject to the regulations of this Chapter in his own name with a passenger or a shipper, or with the agent of a passenger or of a shipper.
Actual carrier referred to in this Section means any person to whom the performance of the whole or part of the transport referred to in the preceding paragraph has been authorized by the contracting carrier, and who is not the successive carrier as provided in this Chapter;
in the absence of a proof to the contrary, such authorization is deemed to be in existence.